Chapter 21

Disorder of written expression


This chapter defines disorder of written expression, and looks at prevalence, causal factors, identification and assessment, and traditional and process-based approaches to teaching writing. It considers various approaches to provision for handwriting, writing composition and spelling. The chapter considers alternative and augmentative communication. It then summarises provision in terms of curriculum and assessment; pedagogy; resources; therapy/care; and organisation.


Many ‘complex skills and sub-skills’ contribute to writing, for example organising ideas, forming letters, spelling and punctuation (Macintyre and Deponio, 2003, p. 67). The necessary abilities range from those associated ...

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