Effects of Hypergravity and Microgravity on Biomedical Experiments, The

Book description


Take one elephant and one man to the top of a tower and simultaneously drop. Which will hit the ground first?

You are a pilot of a jet fighter performing a high-speed loop. Will you pass out during the maneuver?

How can you simulate being an astronaut with your feet still firmly placed on planet Earth?

In the aerospace environment, human, animal, and plant physiology differs significantly from that on Earth, and this book provides reasons for some of these changes. The challenges encountered by pilots in their missions can have implications on the health and safety of not only themselves but others. Knowing the effects of hypergravity on the human body during high-speed flight led to the development of human centrifuges. We also need to better understand the physiological responses of living organisms in space. It is therefore necessary to simulate weightlessness through the use of specially adapted equipment, such as clinostats, tilt tables, and body suspension devices.

Each of these ideas, and more, is addressed in this review of the physical concepts related to space flights, microgravity, and hypergravity simulations. Basic theories, such as Newton’s law and Einstein’s principle are explained, followed by a look at the biomedical effects of experiments performed in space life sciences institutes, universities, and space agencies.

Table of Contents: General Concepts in Physics - Definition of Physical Terms / The Effects of Hypergravity on Biomedical Experiments / The Effects of Microgravity on Biomedical Experiments / References

Table of contents

  1. The Effects of Hypergravity and Microgravity on Biomedical Experiments
    1. Abstract
    2. Keywords
    3. Contents
    4. Chapter 1 - General Concepts in Physics— Definition of Physical Terms
      1. 1.1 GRAVITY AND RELATED CONCEPTS
      2. 1.2 WEIGHT VERSUS MASS AND INERTIAL MASS
      3. 1.3 APPARENT WEIGHT AND NORMAL FORCE
      4. 1.4 THE EINSTEIN PRINCIPLE
      5. 1.5 MICROGRAVITY
      6. 1.5 MICROGRAVITY
      7. 1.6 HYPOGRAVITY
      8. 1.7 PARTIAL-GRAVITY ENVIRONMENTS ON EARTH
        1. 1.7.1 Underwater Immersion
        2. 1.7.2 Parabolic Flights
        3. 1.7.3 Body Suspension Devices
      9. 1.8 Hypergravity
    5. Chapter 2-The Effects of Hypergravity on Biomedical Experiments
      1. 2.1 HYPERGRAVITY AND HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
        1. 2.1.1 Positive Gz Effects
        2. 2.1.2 Negative Gz Effects
      2. 2.2 G IMPACT IN SPACE MISSIONS
      3. 2.3 HUMAN CENTRIFUGES
      4. 2.4 THE MICROGRAVITY CENTRE HYPERGRAVITY EXPERIMENTS
      5. 2.5 TEST MODELS (1/2)
      6. 2.5 TEST MODELS (2/2)
        1. 2.5.1 System of Tubes Simulating the Column of Blood
        2. 2.5.2 Magnetic Rings Representing Intervertebral Disks
        3. 2.5.3 Spring and Rubber Band With an Attached Mass Modeling Muscle Function
        4. 2.5.4 Eruca sativa Mill (Rocket Plant)
    6. Chapter 3-The Effects of Microgravity on Biomedical Experiments
      1. 3.1 GROUND-BASED MICROGRAVITY SIMULATION
        1. 3.1.1 Bed Rest and Bed Rest-Associated HDT
        2. 3.1.2 Tilt Tables
        3. 3.1.3 Water Immersion (Neutral Buoyancy)
        4. 3.1.4 Immobilization
        5. 3.1.5 Body Suspension Devices
        6. 3.1.6 Barany’s Chair
        7. 3.1.7 3D Clinostat
          1. Humidity and Temperature Sensors
          2. Microcontroller
          3. Radiofrequency Transceiver
          4. Modified Falcon Tube
          5. Experimental Use of the Clinostat With Human Cells
      2. 3.2 COLLECTION OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD AND ISOLATION OF MONONUCLEAR CELLS
        1. 3.2.1 Microgravity Test With PBMCs
      3. 3.3 CELL PROLIFERATION/VIABILITY ASSAY
        1. 3.3.1 Statistical Analysis
        2. 3.3.2 Proliferation and Cellular Viability With PBMCs in Microgravity Simulation
        3. 3.3.3 Proliferation and Viability Assay
    7. References
    8. Author Biography

Product information

  • Title: Effects of Hypergravity and Microgravity on Biomedical Experiments, The
  • Author(s): Thais Russomano, Gustavo Dalmarco, Felipe Prehn Falcao
  • Release date: April 2008
  • Publisher(s): Morgan & Claypool Publishers
  • ISBN: 9781598295795