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Electric Energy, 3rd Edition by Mohamed A. El-Sharkawi

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Chapter 11

Transformers

The Italian scientist Antonio Pacinotti, who invented the transformer in 1860, granted the power industry with one of its most important devices, without which the power grid would not exist. The transformer is used to step up (increase) or step down (decrease) the voltage. This capability allows us to transmit and distribute massive amounts of power in today’s extensive power grid. Because power is the product of current and voltage, a large power at a low voltage leads to a high current. Since the current determines the cross section of the transmission line wires, large currents require unrealistic large cross section wires. These impractical wires are heavy and expensive to manufacture and require enormous towers ...

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