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Electric Power Distribution Engineering, 3rd Edition by Turan Gonen

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4.13 Substation Grounding

4.13.1 Electric Shock and Its Effects on Humans

To properly design a grounding (called equipment grounding) for the high-voltage lines and/or substations, it is important to understand the electrical characteristics of the most important part of the circuit, the human body. In general, shock currents are classified based on the degree of severity of the shock they cause. For example, currents that produce direct physiological harm are called primary shock currents. Whereas currents that cannot produce direct physiological harm but may cause involuntary muscular reactions are called secondary shock currents. These shock currents can be either steady state or transient in nature. In alternating current (ac) power systems, ...

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