Chapter 4

Water

4.1 Introduction 4-1

4.2 World Resource 4-3

4.3 Hydroelectric 4-4

Large (≥30 MW) • Small Hydro (100 kW to 30 MW, 10 MW in Europe) • Microhydro (<100 kW)

4.4 Turbines 4-10

Impulse Turbines • Reaction Turbines

4.5 Water Flow 4-12

4.6 Tides 4-15

4.7 Ocean 4-17

Currents • Waves • Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion • Salinity Gradient

4.8 Other 4-24

References4-25

Recommended Resources 4-26

Vaughn Nelson

West Texas A&M University

4.1 Introduction

Energy from water is one of the oldest sources of energy, as paddle wheels were used to rotate a millstone to grind grain. A large number of watermills, 200–500 W, for grinding grain are still in use in remote mountains and hilly regions in the developing world. There are an estimated 500,000 ...

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