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Electrical Applications 2 by David W. Tyler

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and their
in the
electrical industry
Route 3
1 Dry flashover dislance
2 Wet flashover distance
(exposed surfaces wet & conducting)
3 Dry leakage distance
Figure 4.24
are made. The construction is such that although the insulator
shatters the line cannot fall down.
The glass is toughened by heating it to the softening point and
then cooling it fairly rapidly. This causes the surface to become hard
whilst the centre is still plastic. As the centre cools and sets it tries to
contract so pulling in on the outer layers. Before the insulator can
fracture, these internal stresses have to be overcome and th