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Electricity and Electronics for Renewable Energy Technology

Book Description

Electricity and Electronics for Renewable Energy Technology: An Introduction

provides a foundational understanding of electricity and the methods and devices specific to electricity from renewable sources.

The book begins with a brief explanation of the necessary mathematics and then:

  • Addresses the basics of electricity and relationships, motors and generators, transformers, and networks and distribution
  • Tackles the key concepts associated with electronics, diodes and transistors, switching devices, and power converters
  • Covers digital electronics from number systems and logic circuits to encoders and decoders
  • Explores advanced subjects such as reactive power and the operation of a transistor

A lab manual and PowerPoint presentation are available with qualifying course adoption.

Featuring extensive review questions and practice problems at the end of each chapter, Electricity and Electronics for Renewable Energy Technology: An Introduction instills an essential knowledge of electricity and electronics required for work with renewable energy.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Author
  10. 1 Energy and Electricity
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Need for Energy
    3. 1.3 Renewable Energy
    4. 1.4 Electricity
    5. 1.5 Static Electricity
    6. 1.6 Safety at Work and Safety Rules
    7. 1.7 Chapter Summary
  11. 2 Basic Mathematics and Systems of Measurement Units
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Ratio and Percentage
    3. 2.3 Area and Volume Ratios
    4. 2.4 Angles, Triangles, and Trigonometric Relationships
    5. 2.5 Principal Measurement Entities and Systems of Measurement
    6. 2.6 Other Measurement Entities and Their Derivation
    7. 2.7 Conversion between Systems of Measurement Units
    8. 2.8 Formulas, Relationships, and Equations
    9. 2.9 Chapter Summary
  12. 3 Atomic Structure of Materials
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Material Properties
    3. 3.3 Atom and Molecule
    4. 3.4 Atomic Structure of Materials
    5. 3.5 Differences between Materials
    6. 3.6 Similarities between Materials Based on Valence Electrons
    7. 3.7 Categorization of Materials: Conductors and Insulators
    8. 3.8 Electric Charge and Energy in Electrons
    9. 3.9 Chapter Summary
  13. 4 DC and AC Electricity
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Electricity Basics
    3. 4.3 Electricity Effects and Electrical Devices
    4. 4.4 Main Electric Components
      1. 4.4.1 Resistor
      2. 4.4.2 Inductor
      3. 4.4.3 Capacitor
    5. 4.5 Electric Circuit
    6. 4.6 Electric Flow
    7. 4.7 DC and AC
    8. 4.8 Electric Potential and Electric Current
    9. 4.9 Resistance to Electric Flow
      1. 4.9.1 Resistance of a Wire
    10. 4.10 Inductance
    11. 4.11 Capacitance
    12. 4.12 Chapter Summary
  14. 5 Voltage, Current, and Power
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Electric Current
    3. 5.3 Electric Voltage
    4. 5.4 Ohm’s Law: Relationship between Voltage, Current, and Load Resistance
    5. 5.5 Measuring Electric Current
    6. 5.6 Measuring Electric Voltage
    7. 5.7 Multimeter
    8. 5.8 Measuring Resistance
      1. 5.8.1 Checking a Capacitor and an Inductor with an Ohmmeter
    9. 5.9 Electric Power
    10. 5.10 Measuring Electric Power and Energy
    11. 5.11 Chapter Summary
  15. 6 DC Circuits Relationships
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Series Circuit
    3. 6.3 Resistors in Series
    4. 6.4 Parallel Circuit
    5. 6.5 Resistors in Parallel
    6. 6.6 Combined Series and Parallel Resistors
    7. 6.7 Rule of Series Circuits
    8. 6.8 Rule of Parallel Circuits
    9. 6.9 Examples of Combined Circuits
    10. 6.10 Voltage Divider
    11. 6.11 Capacitors in DC Circuits
    12. 6.12 Inductors in DC Circuits
    13. 6.13 Power in DC Circuits
    14. 6.14 Chapter Summary
  16. 7 DC Motors and Generators
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Magnetism
    3. 7.3 Electricity and Magnetism
      1. 7.3.1 Magnetic Field of an Inductor
      2. 7.3.2 Electromagnet
    4. 7.4 Lorentz Force
    5. 7.5 Faraday’s Law
    6. 7.6 DC Machines
      1. 7.6.1 DC Machines Characteristic Curves
      2. 7.6.2 DC Motors
        1. 7.6.2.1 Permanent Magnet DC Motor
        2. 7.6.2.2 Series Wound DC Motor
        3. 7.6.2.3 Shunt Wound DC Motor
        4. 7.6.2.4 Compound Wound DC Motor
      3. 7.6.3 DC Generators
    7. 7.7 DC Sources in Parallel
      1. 7.7.1 Batteries in Parallel
      2. 7.7.2 DC Generators in Parallel
    8. 7.8 Efficiency
    9. 7.9 Chapter Summary
  17. 8 AC Circuits Relationships
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Vectors
    3. 8.3 AC Circuit Measurements and Values
    4. 8.4 Resistors in AC Circuits
    5. 8.5 Inductors in AC Circuits
      1. 8.5.1 Inductor Connected to AC
      2. 8.5.2 AC Current in an Inductor
      3. 8.5.3 Inductors in Series with Each Other
      4. 8.5.4 Inductors in Parallel with Each Other
    6. 8.6 Capacitors in AC Circuits
      1. 8.6.1 Capacitor Connected to AC Electricity
      2. 8.6.2 Current in AC Circuits Containing Capacitor
      3. 8.6.3 Capacitors in Series
      4. 8.6.4 Capacitors in Parallel
    7. 8.7 Power in Inductors and Capacitors
    8. 8.8 Phase Difference
      1. 8.8.1 Leading and Lagging
      2. 8.8.2 Phase Difference between Voltage and Current in AC Circuits
      3. 8.8.3 Use of Vectors to Show the Phase Difference
    9. 8.9 Power in AC
      1. 8.9.1 Impedance
      2. 8.9.2 AC Power
      3. 8.9.3 Power Factor
    10. 8.10 Series RLC Circuits
      1. 8.10.1 Power Factor in Series RLC Circuits
    11. 8.11 Parallel RLC Circuits
      1. 8.11.1 Power Factor in Parallel RLC Circuits
    12. 8.12 Voltage Divider in AC Circuits
    13. 8.13 Resonance
      1. 8.13.1 Resonance in Series Circuits
      2. 8.13.2 Resonance in Parallel Circuits
    14. 8.14 Power Factor Correction
    15. 8.15 Chapter Summary
    16. Advanced Learning: AC Problem Solving Using Complex Numbers
      1. Introduction
  18. 9 Three-Phase Systems
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Three-Phase Electricity
    3. 9.3 Properties of a Three-Phase System
      1. 9.3.1 Wye Connection and Delta Connection
      2. 9.3.2 Voltage Relationships
    4. 9.4 Load Connection in Three-Phase Systems
      1. 9.4.1 Balanced Loads and Unbalanced Loads
      2. 9.4.2 Line Current and Phase Current
    5. 9.5 Three-Phase Loads
      1. 9.5.1 Three-Phase Relationships for Balanced Loads
      2. 9.5.2 Power in Three-Phase Electricity
      3. 9.5.3 Power Factor Correction for Three-Phase Circuits
      4. 9.5.4 Star-Delta Switch
    6. 9.6 Use of Vectors in Three-Phase Electricity
      1. 9.6.1 Current Relationships
    7. 9.7 Unbalanced Loads
    8. 9.8 Chapter Summary
    9. Advanced Learning: Mathematical Representation of Three-Phase Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. Expression for AC Voltage
      3. Three-Phase System
  19. 10 Transformers
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 An Illustrative Example
    3. 10.3 Single-Phase Transformer
      1. 10.3.1 Transformer Fundamental Construction
      2. 10.3.2 Multi-Output Transformers
    4. 10.4 Ideal Transformer
      1. 10.4.1 Voltage Relationship
      2. 10.4.2 Current Relationship
    5. 10.5 Autotransformer and Isolation Transformer
      1. 10.5.1 Autotransformer
      2. 10.5.2 Isolation Transformer
    6. 10.6 Transformer Mounting
    7. 10.7 Three-Phase Transformers
    8. 10.8 Transformer Applications and Power Rating
    9. 10.9 Transformer Efficiency
    10. 10.10 Transformer Circuits
      1. 10.10.1 Transformer Model
      2. 10.10.2 Primary-Secondary Load Interchange
      3. 10.10.3 Measurement of Copper Loss and Core Loss
    11. 10.11 Chapter Summary
    12. Advanced Learning: Real Transformer Circuit Analysis
  20. 11 AC Motors and Generators
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Main Categories of AC Machines
    3. 11.3 Rotating Magnetic Field
    4. 11.4 Synchronous Machines
      1. 11.4.1 Synchronous Motors
      2. 11.4.2 Synchronous Generator
      3. 11.4.3 Characteristic Curves of Synchronous Machines
      4. 11.4.4 Single-Phase Synchronous Machines
    5. 11.5 Asynchronous or Induction Machines
      1. 11.5.1 Three-Phase Wound Rotor Induction Machine
      2. 11.5.2 Squirrel Cage Induction Machine
      3. 11.5.3 Characteristics of Three-Phase Induction Machine
      4. 11.5.4 Single-Phase Induction Machine
    6. 11.6 Induction Motors
      1. 11.6.1 Classes of Electric Motors
      2. 11.6.2 Starting of Single-Phase Induction Motors
      3. 11.6.3 Dynamic Braking
    7. 11.7 Other Motors
      1. 11.7.1 Universal Motor
      2. 11.7.2 Reluctance Motor
      3. 11.7.3 Hysteresis Motor
    8. 11.8 Notes on Application of Electric Machines
      1. 11.8.1 Mechanical Power
      2. 11.8.2 Efficiency
      3. 11.8.3 Duty Cycle
      4. 11.8.4 Back Electromotive Force
      5. 11.8.5 Power Factor Correction
      6. 11.8.6 Nameplate Information
    9. 11.9 Chapter Summary
  21. 12 Electric Power Transmission and Distribution
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Power Transmission and Distribution
      1. 12.2.1 Substation
    3. 12.3 Electric Cables
      1. 12.3.1 Overhead Conductors
      2. 12.3.2 Electrical Properties of Electric Wires and Cables
      3. 12.3.3 Insulated Conductors and Ampacity
    4. 12.4 Fault Detection and Protective Measures
      1. 12.4.1 Electric System Faults
      2. 12.4.2 Grounding
        1. 12.4.2.1 What Point Must Be Grounded?
        2. 12.4.2.2 Grounding in Power Transmission
    5. 12.5 Transmission Lines
      1. 12.5.1 Transmission Lines Effects
      2. 12.5.2 Line Inductance
      3. 12.5.3 Line Capacitance
    6. 12.6 Rules for Network Problems
      1. 12.6.1 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law
      2. 12.6.2 Kirchhoff’s Current Law
      3. 12.6.3 Thevenin’s Theorem
      4. 12.6.4 Principle of Superposition
      5. 12.6.5 Norton’s Theorem
    7. 12.7 High Voltage Direct Current Transmission
    8. 12.8 Chapter Summary
    9. Advanced Learning: Positive, Negative, and Zero Sequence for Fault Analysis
  22. 13 Electronic Components, Functions, and Devices
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Electric and Electronic Devices
    3. 13.3 Categories of Electronic Devices
    4. 13.4 Semiconductor Materials
    5. 13.5 Functions of Electronic Devices
      1. 13.5.1 Amplification
      2. 13.5.2 Rectification
      3. 13.5.3 Signal Generation
      4. 13.5.4 Timing
      5. 13.5.5 Modulation and Demodulation
      6. 13.5.6 Filtering
      7. 13.5.7 Packaging and Storage
    6. 13.6 Blending DC and AC Signals
    7. 13.7 Chapter Summary
  23. 14 Diode
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 PN Junction
    3. 14.3 Forward and Reverse Bias
    4. 14.4 Diode
    5. 14.5 Diode Characteristic Curve
    6. 14.6 Testing a Diode
    7. 14.7 Diodes in a Circuit
    8. 14.8 Diodes in Series and Parallel
    9. 14.9 Light-Emitting Diode
    10. 14.10 Chapter Summary
  24. 15 Regulating Diodes and Applications
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Zener Diode
    3. 15.3 Zener Diode Application
    4. 15.4 Application Examples
    5. 15.5 Zener Diodes in Series and Parallel
    6. 15.6 Diac and Triac
      1. 15.6.1 Diac
      2. 15.6.2 Triac
      3. 15.6.3 Testing a Triac
    7. 15.7 Presentation of Electronic Circuits Diagrams
    8. 15.8 Chapter Summary
  25. 16 Diode Rectifiers and Filters
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Half-Wave Rectifier
    3. 16.3 Full-Wave Rectifier
    4. 16.4 Bridge Rectifier
    5. 16.5 Ripple and Filters
    6. 16.6 Three-Phase Rectifiers
    7. 16.7 Small DC Power Supplies
    8. 16.8 More on Filters
      1. 16.8.1 High Pass and Low Pass Filters
      2. 16.8.2 Band Pass and Band Reject Filters
      3. 16.8.3 Quality Q
    9. 16.9 Chapter Summary
  26. 17 Transistor
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Junction Transistor
    3. 17.3 Transistor Size and Packaging
    4. 17.4 Transistors Connection and Biasing Configuration
    5. 17.5 Modes of Operation
    6. 17.6 How a Transistor Works
    7. 17.7 Transistor Properties
    8. 17.8 Transistor Main Functions
      1. 17.8.1 Switching Function
      2. 17.8.2 Amplification Function
    9. 17.9 Transistor as a Switch
    10. 17.10 Transistor Amplifier
    11. 17.11 Biasing a Transistor
    12. 17.12 Chapter Summary
  27. 18 Transistor Circuits
    1. 18.1 Introduction
    2. 18.2 Transistor Characteristic Curves
    3. 18.3 Common-Emitter Amplifier
    4. 18.4 Common-Base Amplifier
    5. 18.5 Common-Collector Amplifier
    6. 18.6 Current Gain, Voltage Gain, and Power Gain in Amplifiers
    7. 18.7 Amplifier Classes
    8. 18.8 Input and Output Impedance
    9. 18.9 Coupling and Impedance Matching
    10. 18.10 Testing Transistors
    11. 18.11 Chapter Summary
  28. 19 Switchable Diodes and Gated Transistors
    1. 19.1 Introduction
    2. 19.2 Field Effect Transistor
    3. 19.3 FET Types
    4. 19.4 JFET
    5. 19.5 MOSFET
    6. 19.6 Testing a MOSFET
    7. 19.7 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
    8. 19.8 Thyristor
    9. 19.9 Chapter Summary
  29. 20 Power Converters
    1. 20.1 Introduction
    2. 20.2 Inverter
      1. 20.2.1 Single-Phase Inverter
    3. 20.3 Thyristor-Based Three-Phase Rectifier
      1. 20.3.1 Revisiting Diode-Based Three-Phase Rectifiers
      2. 20.3.2 Substituting Diodes by Switchable Devices for Three-Phase Rectifiers
      3. 20.3.3 Voltage Control in Thyristor-Based Rectifier
    4. 20.4 Thyristor-Based Three-Phase Inverter
      1. 20.4.1 180° Conduction
      2. 20.4.2 120° Conduction
    5. 20.5 Power Converter
    6. 20.6 Pulse Width Modulation
      1. 20.6.1 DC Voltage Regulation by Pulse Width Modulation
      2. 20.6.2 PWM for AC Generation
      3. 20.6.3 PWM-Controlled Inverter
      4. 20.6.4 Pulse Width Modulation for Three-Phase Inverter
    7. 20.7 Application in Motor Drives
    8. 20.8 Chapter Summary
  30. 21 Electronic Power Converters in Wind Turbines and Solar Photovoltaic Systems
    1. 21.1 Introduction
    2. 21.2 Wind Turbine Basics
    3. 21.3 Solar Energy Systems
      1. 21.3.1 Photovoltaic Systems
      2. 21.3.2 Solar Heating Systems
    4. 21.4 AC-to-AC Power Converters
      1. 21.4.1 Unidirectional Back-to-Back Converters
      2. 21.4.2 Bidirectional Back-to-Back Converters
    5. 21.5 Synchronous Generator for a Wind Turbine
    6. 21.6 Squirrel Cage Induction Generator
    7. 21.7 Doubly Fed Induction Generator
      1. 21.7.1 Wind Turbines with DFIG
      2. 21.7.2 How a DFIG Works
        1. 21.7.2.1 Subsynchronous Operation
        2. 27.7.2.2 Supersynchronous Operation
    8. 21.8 Chapter Summary
  31. 22 Digital Electronics
    1. 22.1 Introduction
    2. 22.2 Number Systems
      1. 22.2.1 Hexadecimal Number System
      2. 22.2.2 Binary Number System
      3. 22.2.3 Octal Number System
      4. 22.2.4 Conversion between Binary and Hexadecimal Numbers
      5. 22.2.5 Direct Conversion between Binary and Octal Numbers
    3. 22.3 Number Conversion and Precision
      1. 22.3.1 Bits and Bytes
      2. 22.3.2 Representation of Negative Binary Numbers
      3. 22.3.3 Precision in Analog-to-Digital Conversion
    4. 22.4 One’s and Two’s Complement
      1. 22.4.1 Addition
      2. 22.4.2 Subtraction
      3. 22.4.3 One’s Complement of a Binary Number
      4. 22.4.4 Two’s Complement of a Binary Number
      5. 22.4.5 Multiplication and Division of Unsigned Binary Numbers
    5. 22.5 Number Display and BCD
    6. 22.6 Sampling Analog Variables
      1. 22.6.1 Sampling
      2. 22.6.2 Clock Signal
    7. 22.7 Chapter Summary
  32. 23 Logic Circuits and Applications
    1. 23.1 Introduction
    2. 23.2 Logic Gates
      1. 23.2.1 AND Gate
      2. 23.2.2 OR Gate
      3. 23.2.3 NOT Gate
      4. 23.2.4 NAND Gate
      5. 23.2.5 NOR Gate
      6. 23.2.6 XOR Gate
    3. 23.3 Logic Gate Math Functions
      1. 23.3.1 Gate Functions by Definition
    4. 23.4 Boolean Algebra
      1. 23.4.1 Laws of Boolean Algebra
      2. 23.4.2 Application of Boolean Algebra Laws
      3. 23.4.3 Sum of Products and Product of Sums
    5. 23.5 K-Maps
      1. 23.5.1 K-Map for Two Inputs
      2. 23.5.2 K-Map for Three Inputs
      3. 23.5.3 K-Map for Four Inputs
      4. 23.5.4 Don’t Care Entries
    6. 23.6 Chapter Summary
  33. 24 Encoders and Decoders
    1. 24.1 Introduction
    2. 24.2 Flip-Flop
      1. 24.2.1 Basic Flip-Flop
      2. 24.2.2 Clock-Controlled Flip-Flops
      3. 24.2.3 Initialization
    3. 24.3 Latch
    4. 24.4 Flip-Flop Applications
    5. 24.5 Code Conversion
      1. 24.5.1 Decoder
      2. 24.5.2 Encoder
    6. 24.6 Multiplexer and Demultiplexer
    7. 24.7 Chapter Summary
  34. Glossary
  35. Appendix A: Internal Resistance of Batteries and Battery Aging
  36. Appendix B: Switches
  37. Appendix C: Special Transformers
  38. Appendix D: Mil and Circular Mil
  39. Appendix E: Standard Resistors
  40. Appendix F: Quality Factor of RLC Circuits
  41. Appendix G: Structure of Logic Gates
  42. Index