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Electricity and Electronics for Renewable Energy Technology by Ahmad Hemami

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Appendix G: Structure of Logic Gates

It was mentioned in Chapter 22 that all the digital electronics components are made out of analog electronic circuits, such as transistors. Construction of some of the logic gates are shown in Figures G.1 and G.2. These are the simplest designs, which are based on transistor-transistor logic. Other designs are also possible. Furthermore, the basic designs can be enhanced by amplification.

Figure G.3a depicts a simple transistor working as a NOT circuit. An enhancement of the same circuit with another transistor to amplify the input is shown in Figure G.3b. Also, another version of the NOR gate is illustrated in Figure G.3c. However, the previous one in Figure G.2b is preferable to this in the sense that the ...

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