Appendix A3Propagation through the Atmosphere

When a laser beam is propagated through a substantial path length in the atmosphere, we experience a number of phenomena that affect the optical power carried by the beam and distort the wavefront. Usually, atmospheric effects are classified in two categories: (i) those associated with the non-ideal transparence of the atmosphere, notably absorption and scattering, called turbidity effects, and (ii) those coming from non-homogeneity of the index of refraction of the atmosphere, caused by thermal exchange and air mass motion, called turbulence effects.

A vast amount of literature is available on the subject (see, for example, Refs.[1-5]), and here we will report a few results to supply basic information ...

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