Book description
Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.
In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration procedures. Comparisons with other testing systems (TEM cells, anechoic chambers) are also discussed.
Table of contents
 Cover
 Title Page
 Copyright
 Preface
 Foreword
 Introduction

Chapter 1. Position of the Reverberation Chambers in Common Electromagnetic Tests
 1.1 Introduction
 1.2 Electromagnetic fields and plane waves
 1.3 Electromagnetic tests in confined areas
 1.4 Discussion
 1.5 Bibliography

Chapter 2. Main Physical Features of Electromagnetic Cavities
 2.1 Introduction

2.2 Reduction of the modes in a 1D cavity
 2.2.1 Description of the 1D cavity
 2.2.2 Solutions of the 1D waves equation
 2.2.3 Eigenmodes computation
 2.2.4 Comparison of a cavity to a network of LC resonators
 2.2.5 Contribution of the quality factor to the cavity
 2.2.6 Optimal coupling of the energy on an eigenmode
 2.2.7 Deviation of the modal frequencies produced by an obstacle
 2.2.8 Implementation of mode stirring

2.3 Physical features of an empty rectangular cavity
 2.3.1 Geometrical description of the reverberation chamber
 2.3.2 Calculation of the eigenmodes’ frequencies
 2.3.3 The first eigenmode
 2.3.4 Higher order modes
 2.3.5 Mode spacing and mode density
 2.3.6 Quality factor of the 3D cavity
 2.3.7 Regarding the excitation conditions of the cavity
 2.3.8 Plane wave spectrum
 2.3.9 Influence of the energy losses on the plane wave spectrum
 2.4 The 3D cavity operating in stirred modes
 2.5 Discussion
 2.6 Bibliography

Chapter 3. Statistical Behavior of Stirred Waves in an Oversized Cavity
 3.1 Introduction

3.2 Descriptions of the ideal random electromagnetic field
 3.2.1 The electromagnetic field assumed as a random variable
 3.2.2 Statement of the postulate of an ideal random field
 3.2.3 Presentation conventions of the random variables
 3.2.4. x2 probability distribution
 3.2.5 Probability density function of the absolute field amplitude
 3.2.6 Probability density function of the power variable
 3.3 Simulation of the properties of an ideal random field
 3.4 Contribution of the statistical tests
 3.5 Balance of power in a reverberation chamber
 3.6 Discussion
 3.7 Bibliography

Chapter 4. Impact of the Physical and Technological Parameters of a Reverberation Chamber
 4.1 Introduction

4.2 Main parameters for reverberation chamber design
 4.2.1 List of the main building parameters
 4.2.2 Impact of the geometrical and physical parameters of the chamber

4.2.3 Factors influencing the quality factor of a chamber
 4.2.3.1. The Q1 quality factor associated with the losses in the walls
 4.2.3.2. The Q2 quality factor attached to the receiving antenna
 4.2.3.3. The Q3 quality factor attached with the devices under test
 4.2.3.4. Behavior of the composite quality factor versus the excitation frequency
 4.2.3.5. Role given to the transmitting antenna
 4.2.4 Space correlation of an ideal random electromagnetic field distribution
 4.3 The usual techniques of mode stirring

4.4 The characterization of reverberation chambers
 4.4.1 Aims of the characterization of reverberation chambers
 4.4.2 Characterization of the efficiency of mode stirring

4.4.3 Test of the stationary random electromagnetic field distribution
 4.4.3.1. Estimator of the mean amplitude of the field
 4.4.3.2. Estimate of the σν standard deviation
 4.4.3.3. Measurement of the uncertainty attached to the mean field amplitude
 4.4.3.4. Nth order statistic
 4.4.3.5. Estimate of the maximum field amplitude
 4.4.3.6. Discussion on the ratio of the maximum and mean amplitudes
 4.4.4 Measurements of the quality factor
 4.4.5 Localization of the lowest usable frequency of the chamber
 4.5 Discussion
 4.6 Bibliography

Chapter 5. Radiated Immunity Tests in a Reverberation Chamber
 5.1 Introduction
 5.2 The calibration process
 5.3 Examples of calibration results
 5.4 Implementing of the immunity test for a piece of equipment
 5.5 Immunity test in reverberation and anechoic chambers
 5.6 Rectangular components of the electric field and the total electric field
 5.7 Discussion
 5.8 Bibliography

Chapter 6. Emissivity Tests in Reverberation Chambers
 6.1 Introduction

6.2 A few notions on electromagnetic radiation and antennas
 6.2.1 Origin of electromagnetic radiation
 6.2.2 Properties of the electromagnetic field at a distance from the radiation source
 6.2.3 Intensity and directivity of the electromagnetic radiation
 6.2.4 Polarization and partial directivities
 6.2.5 Efficiency and gain of an antenna
 6.2.6 Effective area of an antenna
 6.2.7 Transmission balance between two antennas — Friis expression
 6.2.8 Formulation and properties of the radiation in a spherical graph
 6.3 Measurement of the total radiated power in free space

6.4 Measurement of the unintentional emission of a device under test

6.4.1 Calibration and evaluation of the total radiated power in reverberation chambers
 6.4.1.1. Configuration of the calibration measurement
 6.4.1.2. Calculation of the total radiated power
 6.4.1.3. Operating mode of the measurement of the total radiated power in reverberation chambers
 6.4.1.4. Evaluation of the insertion losses on a very large frequency band
 6.4.1.5. Measurements based on the estimation of the maximum received power

6.4.1 Calibration and evaluation of the total radiated power in reverberation chambers
 6.5 Measurement examples of the total radiated power
 6.6 Total radiated power and radiated emissivity
 6.7 Measurement of the efficiency and of the diversity gain of the antennas
 6.8 Discussion
 6.9 Bibliography

Chapter 7. Measurement of the Shielding Effectiveness
 7.1 Introduction
 7.2 Definitions of the shielding effectiveness

7.3 Measurement of the effectiveness of shielded cables and connectors in reverberation chambers
 7.3.1 Electromagnetic coupling on wires placed in a reverberation chamber
 7.3.2 The effective area of a cable or a shielded connector
 7.3.3 Relationship between the reference power and the current induced on a device under test
 7.3.4 Conversion of the shielding attenuation into a transfer impedance
 7.3.5 Examples of the measurements of the shielding effectiveness of the connectors
 7.4 Measurement of the attenuation of the shielded enclosures
 7.5 Measurement of the shielding effectiveness of the materials
 7.6 Discussion
 7.7 Bibliography

Chapter 8. Mode Stirring Reverberation Chamber: A Research Tool
 8.1 Introduction

8.2 A nonideal random electromagnetic field

8.2.1 An estimate of the statistics of a rectangular component of an electric field in an effective reverberation chamber
 8.2.1.1. Estimate of the Rayleigh distribution parameter
 8.2.1.2. The goodness offit test for a Rayleigh distribution with an a priori unknown parameter
 8.2.1.3. Example of the KolmogorovSmirnov test according to the Massey and Stephens criteria from measurements carried out in a reverberation chamber
 8.2.2 Resorting to a replacement distribution: the Weibull distribution

8.2.1 An estimate of the statistics of a rectangular component of an electric field in an effective reverberation chamber

8.3 Studying the correlation of a set of measurements
 8.3.1 Outline of the link between correlation and statistical uncertainty
 8.3.2 Measurement of the correlation
 8.3.3 Study of the linear correlation during experimental estimates
 8.3.4 Statistical distribution of the coefficient of linear correlation
 8.3.5 Approximation of a normal distribution for the estimate of the first order correlation function
 8.3.6. Residual correlation and impact on the reproducibility of the measurements in reverberation chambers
 8.4 Quantization of the scattered and coherent fields in a reverberation chamber
 8.5 Discussion
 8.6 Bibliography

APPENDICES

Appendix 1. Notion of Probability
 A1.1. The random variable concept
 A1.2. Probability concept from intuition
 A1.3. Probability density function (pdf)
 A1.4. Computation of moments
 A1.5. Centered and normalized variables
 A1.6. Computation of the variance and standard deviation
 A1.7. Probability distributions
 A1.8. The cumulative distribution function (cdf)
 A1.9. The ergodism notion
 A1.10. Features of the random stationary variables
 A1.11. The characteristic function
 A1.12. Summary of the main probability distributions
 A1.13. Tables of numerical values of the normal distribution integrals
 A1.14. Bibliography
 Appendix 2. Formulas of the Quality Factor of a Rectangular Cavity
 Appendix 3. Total Field and Total Power Variables
 Appendix 4. Calculation of the Variances of υφ, υη, υθ
 Appendix 5. Electric Dipole Formulas

Appendix 1. Notion of Probability
 Index
Product information
 Title: Electromagnetic Reverberation Chambers
 Author(s):
 Release date: September 2011
 Publisher(s): Wiley
 ISBN: 9781848212930
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