Modeling, simulation, and X-ray microbeam studies of electromigration
A.M. Maniatty, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA
G.S. Cargill, III, Lehigh University, USA
H. Zhang, Cascade Engineering Services Inc., USA
Modeling and simulation coupled with X-ray microbeam studies, where local elastic strains are measured, can be used to resolve some of the challenging questions regarding the physics of electromigration. This chapter provides an introduction to the prevalent modeling methodology and three key issues that are currently unresolved: (i) how does the diffusing mass arrange itself and the effect of diffusion path, (ii) what is the appropriate driving stress, and (iii) determination of effective charge number ...