The evolution of microstructure in copper interconnects during electromigration
A.S. Budiman, SunPower Corporation, USA
The key concepts and experimental techniques in investigating the evolution of microstructure in Cu interconnects during electromigration are discussed and some of the fundamental changes in the microstructure during electromigration are described. The practical implications of such microstructural changes in relation to electromigration degradation mechanisms and lifetime measurement methodology are assessed.
synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction
Studies of the evolution of microstructure during electromigration ...