114 ◾  Electronic Health Record: A Systems Analysis of the Medications Domain
DFD 2.1 Communicate Order
Again, we isolate a process—2.1 Communicate Order—from its higher-level DFD
while we keep its related actors, data stores, and (same-level) processes attached
(Figure4.4).
Only ORDERING CLINICIAN interacts with process 2.1. The Order-related
communications are in the form of Read/Write, and the table to store these
data elements is DRUG COMMUNICATION. The breakdown of the DFD2.1
Communicate Order (Figure4.5) is following the same line as DFD 1.1
Communicate Prescription.
DRUG COMMUNICATION
2.1
Communicate
Order
ORDERING
CLINICIAN
Patient ID, Order ID
Communication
Patient ID, Order ID
Communication
Figure 4.4 Communicate Order process: Isolated from DFD 2.
DRUG COMMUNICATION
2.1.1
Read
Communication
ORDERING
CLINICIAN
2.1.2
Write
Communication
Patient ID, Order ID
Communication
Patient ID, Order ID, Communication
Patient ID, Order ID
Communication
Patient ID, Order ID, Communication
Figure 4.5 DFD 2.1: Communicate Order.
Order/CPOE ◾  115
The communications processes of DISPENSING and ADMINISTERING
CLINICIAN are detailed in the next chapters, and that is the reason the
ORDERING CLINICIAN appears to be the only actor in DFD 2.1:
Sends Patient ID and Order ID to DRUG COMMUNICATION
Receives communications related to patient
Sends updated communications to DRUG COMMUNICATION
We can reuse process 1.1.x (Figures3.3 and 3.4) with only some minor differ-
ences for process 2.1.x.
DFD 2.2 Review Patient Data
Isolating process 2.2 Review Patient Data from the parent DFD 2 (Figure4.6).
Process 2.2 Review Patient Data uses the following subprocesses:
Sends Patient ID to PATIENT MEDICATION
Receives information on patient medications
Sends Patient ID to NON-DRUG REPOSITORY
Receives clinical, non-drug-related information
Sends patient parameters to CDS
Receives CDS recommendations
Sends patient parameters to Consider Formulary
Receives Formulary data on patient medications
Sends patient parameters to Process 2.7 Use Order Set
Receives a list of potentially relevant Order Sets for the specific patient
parameters
Sends patient (drug and non-drug-related) data, CDS, Formulary, and a list
of relevant Order Sets to the user
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2.5
Consider
Formulary
2.2
Review Patient
Data
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REPOSITORY
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2.7
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Figure 4.6 Review patient data process: Isolated from DFD 2.
116 ◾  Electronic Health Record: A Systems Analysis of the Medications Domain
The differences between DFD 1.2 and 2.2 are as follows:
Process 2.7 Use Order Set may recommend an Order Set relevant to the
patient parameters.
Eligibility with PBM is usually not performed by a hospital pharmacy.
Thus, DFD 1.2.x (Figures3.5 and 3.6) may be reused with these two changes as
DFD 2.2.x.
DFD 2.3 Select Drug
Isolating process 2.3 Select Drug from the Order workflow (Figure4.7).
Process 2.3 has the following subprocesses:
Sends Patient ID to PATIENT MEDICATION
Receives the information on the medications patient is administered
Sends patient parameters to RECOMMENDED DRUG DOSE
Receives list of drugs relevant to patient condition, age, gender, and so on
Sends patient parameters to CDS
Receives CDS recommendations on drugs
Sends drug parameters to 2.5 Consider Formulary
Receives information on drug tier and therapeutic alternatives
Receives drug options from 2.7 Use Order Set
Receives drug selected by user
Sends drug selected to 2.7 Use Order Set (the actual selection of an Order Set
is detailed further in this chapter)
Sends drug to CDS and Formulary for final check
Sends selected drug to PATIENT MEDICATION (setting the dose is detailed next)
PATIENT MEDICATION
RECOMMENDED DRUG DOSE
ORDERING
CLINICIAN
2.5
Consider
Formulary
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2.3
Select Drug
2.7
Use Order Set
Figure 4.7 Select Drug process: Isolated from DFD 2.

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