CHAPTER        6


In this chapter, we look at techniques to accurately associate individuals with user identities inside a computer. The discussion will focus on passwords with an introduction to other methods. The chapter examines the following topics:

•  The three authentication factors: what you know, have, are

•  Passwords, password bias, and average attack space

•  Cryptographic building blocks: random choice, one-way hash

•  Authentication devices: personal tokens and biometrics

•  Basic issues in authentication policy

6.1 Unlocking a Door

We use padlocks, deadbolts, and safes to protect unattended things. We arrange it so that only authorized users may open these locks. We either restrict copies ...

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