Chapter 12

* Former Director, National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), New Delhi.

1. This apex institution predates the 1986 policy by a quarter-century. When it was set up in 1961, interest in educational research and provision for it were extremely limited. The council has played a unique role in promoting research as a means to mobilize professional energy for reforms in school education. Further information can be found at

2. Professor Yash Pal played a leading role in advancing the space exploration and satellite-based communication programmes of the nation, and has been chairman of the University Grants Commission which funds universities across the nation.

3. Details on these, including the complete ...

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