Ibuk A process for removing free sulfur and sulfur dioxide from “benzole” (a mixture of aromatic
hydrocarbons used as a motor fuel) by passing the vapor through sulfuric acid and then hot aqueous sodium
hydroxide. Invented by T. Troniseck and used in Germany in the 1930s.
British Patent 364,778.
Claxton, G., Benzoles: Production and Uses, National Benzole & Allied Products Assoc., London, U.K., 1961, 417.
ICAR [Intermediate Catalytic Accumulation of Ionizing Radiation Energy] A hypothetical process for con-
verting nuclear energy to chemical energy. Energy from a nuclear reactor is used to promote the catalytic
reforming of methane to *syngas. Proposed by Yu. A. Aristov in 1993. See also EVA-ADA M.
Parmon, V.N., Catal. Today, 1997, 35(1–2), 153.
ICEM See DR.
ICG-GUD [Integrated Coal Gasication–Gas Und Dampf] An integrated coal gasication and power genera-
tion system developed by Siemens, Germany. The coal is gasied by exposure to steam and oxygen. The gases
are then burned in a gas turbine, producing electric power, and the hot combustion products then generate more
power in a steam turbine. Removal of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and dusts is easier than in conventional
coal-red power stations. A demonstration plant was scheduled to be built in the Netherlands in 1990.
U.S. Patent 5,451,160.
IChPW See carbonization.
ICI Low-Pressure Methanol A process for making methanol from methane and steam. The methanol is
rst converted to *syngas by *steam reforming at a relatively low pressure. The syngas is then converted to
methanol over a copper-based catalyst:
CO 2H CHOH
CO 3H CH OH H O
CO HO CO H O
Conversion per pass is limited by reaction equilibrium; after cooling to condense the product methanol, the
unreacted gas is recycled to the reactor. Developed by Imperial Chemical Industries in the late 1960s, since
when it has been the leading process. As of 1991, 41 plants had been commissioned and a further seven were
under contract or construction.
Hydrocarbon Process. Int. Ed., 1991, 70(3), 164.
Weissermel, K. and Arpe, H.-J., Industrial Organic Chemistry, 4th ed., translated by C.R. Hindley and S. Hawkins,
Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2003, 31.