3

Congestion Issues and TCP

CONTENTS

3.1 Overview

3.2 Core Issues in Congestion Control

3.3 TCP: Flow Control and Congestion Control

3.3.1 Slow Start

3.3.2 Congestion Avoidance

3.3.3 Fast Retransmit and Fast Recovery

3.4 TCP Problems

3.5 Managing Congestion

3.5.1 TCP-Friendliness

3.5.2 Classification of Congestion Control Protocols

3.5.2.1 Window-Based vs. Rate-Based

3.5.2.2 Unicast vs. Multicast

3.5.2.3 End-to-End vs. Router-Based

3.6 Concluding Comments

3.1 Overview

Current Internet is a best effort network, as it does not provide any guarantee in data delivery and the users obtain unspecified variable bit rate depending on the traffic load. Internet applications share on equal terms all network resources (e.g., link bandwidth). Whenever ...

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