CPU Power Management
The CPUs and memory inside of a data center consume a fraction of the overall power, but their efficiency and built-in power management capabilities are one of the biggest influences on data center efficiency. Saving power inside of the CPU has multiplicative savings at larger scales. Saving 1 watt of power at the CPU can easily turn into 1.5 watts of savings due to power delivery efficiency losses inside the server, and up to 3 watts in the data center. Reducing CPU power reduces the cooling costs, since less heat must be removed from the overall system.
Before discussing how power is saved in the CPU, we will ...