vii
Contents
Series Preface ......................................................................................................xvii
Series Editor ......................................................................................................... xxi
Preface .................................................................................................................xxiii
The Authors ........................................................................................................ xxv
Section I Basic Principles
1. Introduction to the Issues .............................................................................3
Introduction ......................................................................................................3
Energy Terms ....................................................................................................4
Conservation Law for Energy ........................................................................6
Enthalpy ............................................................................................................8
Heat Transfer .................................................................................................. 10
Net Energy Analysis...................................................................................... 11
Developing a National Energy Policy .........................................................13
Short Term .................................................................................................. 14
Long Term .................................................................................................. 14
References .......................................................................................................15
2. Thermodynamic Principles: Entropy Analysis ......................................17
Introduction ....................................................................................................17
Qualitative Review of the Second Law ....................................................... 18
Describing Equations ....................................................................................19
The Heat Exchanger Dilemma .....................................................................22
Applications ....................................................................................................26
Concluding Comments .................................................................................29
References .......................................................................................................30
3. Energy Demand ............................................................................................ 31
Introduction ....................................................................................................31
Early History ..................................................................................................32
The First Humans ..........................................................................................33
The Industrial Revolution .............................................................................34
Recent Years ....................................................................................................35
Effect of Demand of Energy Resources ......................................................36
Coal .............................................................................................................36
Oil ................................................................................................................37
Natural Gas ................................................................................................38
Oil Shale .....................................................................................................38
viii Contents
Nuclear Energy ..........................................................................................39
Solar ............................................................................................................39
Hydroelectric .............................................................................................40
Geothermal ................................................................................................40
Canada ............................................................................................................. 41
Energy Needs ............................................................................................41
Energy Resources ......................................................................................41
Tar Sands .........................................................................................................42
Future Energy Demands ..............................................................................42
Concluding Remarks .....................................................................................47
References .......................................................................................................48
4. Sustainability and Green Science/Engineering .....................................49
Introduction ....................................................................................................49
Sustainability ..................................................................................................50
Historical Perspective ...............................................................................50
Resource Limitations ................................................................................51
Sustainable Development Considerations .............................................53
Resources for Sustainability ....................................................................57
Future Trends ............................................................................................57
Green Science/Engineering .........................................................................58
Introduction to Green Chemistry ...........................................................58
Introduction to Green Science/Engineering ......................................... 61
Green Chemistry versus Green Engineering........................................62
Green Resources (Internet Sources) .......................................................64
References .......................................................................................................65
5. Energy Regulations ......................................................................................67
Introduction ....................................................................................................67
The Regulatory System .................................................................................68
Laws and Regulations: The Differences .....................................................69
The Role of the States ....................................................................................71
The Department of Energy (DOE) ...............................................................73
The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) ..............................75
Energy Information Administration (EIA) ................................................ 76
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ...........................................77
The 2013 New York State Energy Plan ........................................................80
Overview of New York’s State Energy Plan .......................................... 81
References .......................................................................................................88
6. The Modern Energy Matrix: An Overview .............................................89
Introduction ....................................................................................................89
Energy System Components ........................................................................90
Resources ....................................................................................................90
Production .................................................................................................. 91
ixContents
Transportation/Transmission .................................................................92
Coal .........................................................................................................93
Oil ...........................................................................................................94
Natural Gas ...........................................................................................95
Utilization ..................................................................................................95
Energy Matrix Overview ..............................................................................97
References ..................................................................................................... 102
Section II Energy Resources: Fossil Fuels
7. Coal ................................................................................................................105
Introduction .................................................................................................. 105
Early History ................................................................................................ 107
Availability/Distribution and Characterization .....................................108
Availability/Distribution ....................................................................... 109
Characterization ...................................................................................... 112
Extraction, Processing, and Transportation/Transmission ................... 119
Extraction ................................................................................................. 119
Processing ................................................................................................124
Transportation/Transmission ...............................................................125
Environmental Issues ..................................................................................126
Future Prospects and Concerns .................................................................127
References .....................................................................................................130
8. Oil .................................................................................................................. 131
Introduction .................................................................................................. 131
Early History ................................................................................................ 132
Availability/Distribution and Characterization .....................................133
Availability/Distribution .......................................................................133
Characterization ......................................................................................134
Extraction, Processing, and Transportation/Transmission ................... 140
Extraction ................................................................................................. 140
Processing ................................................................................................ 144
Transportation/Transmission ............................................................... 147
Pipelines .............................................................................................. 147
Ships .....................................................................................................148
Trains.................................................................................................... 148
Environmental Issues .................................................................................. 148
Future Prospects and Concerns .................................................................150
References .....................................................................................................150
9. Natural Gas .................................................................................................. 151
Introduction .................................................................................................. 151
x Contents
Early History ................................................................................................ 152
Availability/Distribution and Characterization .....................................153
Availability/Distribution .......................................................................153
Characterization ......................................................................................155
Extraction, Processing, and Transportation/Transmission ...................157
Extraction ................................................................................................. 157
Processing ................................................................................................158
Transportation/Transmission ...............................................................158
Environmental Issues ..................................................................................159
Future Prospects and Concerns ................................................................. 160
References ..................................................................................................... 161
10. Shale Oil ....................................................................................................... 163
Introduction .................................................................................................. 163
Early History ................................................................................................164
Availability/Distribution and Characterization .....................................165
Extraction, Processing, and Transportation/Transmission ...................166
Extraction ................................................................................................. 166
Processing ................................................................................................ 167
Transportation/Transmission ............................................................... 168
Environmental Issues .................................................................................. 168
Future Prospects and Concerns ................................................................. 170
References ..................................................................................................... 171
11. Tar Sands ......................................................................................................173
Introduction .................................................................................................. 173
Early History ................................................................................................ 174
Availability/Distribution and Characterization .....................................175
Availability/Distribution ....................................................................... 175
Characterization ...................................................................................... 176
Extraction, Processing, and Transportation/Transmission ................... 176
Extraction ................................................................................................. 176
Processing ................................................................................................ 178
Transportation/Transmission ...............................................................179
Environmental Issues ..................................................................................179
Future Prospects and Concerns .................................................................180
References ..................................................................................................... 181
Section III Other Energy Resources
12. Solar Energy ................................................................................................. 185
Introduction .................................................................................................. 185
Early History ................................................................................................ 186
xiContents
Availability, Distribution, and Characterization ..................................... 187
Availability ............................................................................................... 187
Distribution ..............................................................................................188
Characterization ...................................................................................... 189
Extraction, Processing, and Transportation/Transmission ...................190
Extraction .................................................................................................190
Processing ................................................................................................ 192
Transportation/Transmission ...............................................................192
Environmental Issues .................................................................................. 193
Future Prospects and Concerns ................................................................. 194
References ..................................................................................................... 195
13. Nuclear Energy ............................................................................................ 197
Introduction .................................................................................................. 197
Early History ................................................................................................199
Availability/Distribution and Characterization .....................................202
Availability/Distribution .......................................................................202
Characterization ......................................................................................203
Extraction, Conversion, and Transportation/Transmission ..................203
Extraction and Conversion ....................................................................203
Transportation/Transmission ...............................................................207
Environmental Issues ..................................................................................207
Waste Disposal ........................................................................................208
Plant Accidents/Safety ...........................................................................209
Radiation Effects .....................................................................................209
Future Prospects and Concerns ................................................................. 212
References ..................................................................................................... 213
14. Hydroelectric Energy ................................................................................. 215
Introduction .................................................................................................. 215
Early History ................................................................................................ 217
Availability/Distribution and Characterization ..................................... 218
Availability/Distribution ....................................................................... 218
Characterization ......................................................................................220
Extraction, Processing, and Transportation/Transmission ...................221
Extraction .................................................................................................221
Processing ................................................................................................222
Transportation/Transmission ...............................................................223
Environmental Issues ..................................................................................224
Future Prospects and Concerns .................................................................225
References .....................................................................................................226
15. Wind Energy ................................................................................................227
Introduction ..................................................................................................227
Early History ................................................................................................228

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