A lot of trial and error goes into making things look effortless.
—Bill Moggridge, founder of international consultancy IDEO
Questions about whether design is necessary or affordable are quite beside the point; design is inevitable. The alternative to good design is bad design, not no design at all.
—Douglas Martin, author
Imagine a classroom: the teacher has assigned the students to build a robot arm out of a pile of common classroom materials such as cardboard strips, paper clips, string, tape, and binder clips. The task is to build an arm capable of lifting a bottle of water without spilling or toppling, move the bottle, and place it in a different location. In another classroom, teams of students ...