The armed conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), beginning in 1992 shortly after the Federal Republic of B&H declared independence from Yugoslavia, had a profound effect upon its universities. Although open conflict was officially brought to an end in December 1995, the constitutional compromise whereby this was achieved, possibly even more than the conflict’s more direct effects, resulted in a range of intractable obstacles to the enhancement of the country’s higher education (HE).
Higher Education before the Conflict
There were four universities in B&H when the conflict began, all founded after the Second World War. The oldest was Sarajevo, ...