The secret to evaluating the implications of an Observation is to compare it with what was expected. That is, the actual Value Quantity for a Direct Measurement from a Laboratory Test on a Sample, may only be meaningful if it is compared with the Maximum Allowable Quantity and Minimum Allowable Quantity for an Expected Observation (as shown in Figure 17-6).

In fact, it is the set of Expected Observations that constitute the definition of a particular Test Method or Test Method Step. That is, in each case, the Test Method or the Test Method Step must be defined in terms of a set of one or more Expected Observations.

For example, the amount of cadmium contamination described in the previous section can, in principle, be ...

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