It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts.
The promise of EPM is to provide a closed-loop framework for decision making, resource deployment, fewer surprises, and new insights. Most organizations are content with having EPM be about planning, reporting, and analytics, which theoretically gives you what you need. But there is a missing component, the most underused, underconnected, underappreciated part of the cycle: a system and process for facilitating, recording, communicating, and leveraging a robust debate about what's possible in the organization.
Looking into the Debate process in more detail, as shown in Figure 5.1, we see: