19. Epigenetics of health and disease—diet and toxicology, environmental exposures

Health and disease phenotypes have long been thought to be a consequence of an individual’s genetic composition. There is a strong foundation for this line of thought, including the discovery of many genetically based diseases such as sickle-cell anemia, albinism, and many others. However, there are many other diseases in existence that cannot be exclusively or fully defined and explained by genetics. In addition, with the complete sequencing of the human genome, the realization that far fewer genes exist than had previously been thought and a surprising degree of gene conservation between humans and other species, there has come to be a greater acceptance of other ...

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