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Essential Guide to Computing: The Story of Information Technology, The by E. Garrison Walters

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Part 2: Software (Chapter 5 through 9)

As you shift your attention from hardware to software, it's appropriate to think of hardware as the vehicle and software as the driver. Or, if you prefer the concept of layers of activity, hardware is the bottom layer, and software sits on top. In fact, though, we'll see that software itself comprises a number of layers. The first of these is the operating system (OS), the layer in software that is responsible for managing the hardware-software partnership. The principles of the OS are covered in:

Over the years, systems developers have created multiple kinds and types of operating systems. Some of these variations are principally the consequence of improvements ...

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