Supplement: Cryptography in the Armed Public Security Forces, 1959 – 1989

The Armed Public Security Forces – a sort of State police, border and coastal guard, and internal security force, distinguished from the PAVN by green, as opposed to red, collar tabs or shoulder boardswere formed in March 1959 in accordance with Politburo Decision 58 of November 1958 (HQ, Border Guard Troops, History of the Border Guard Troops, Vol 1, 1959–1979. Hanoi: People's Public Security Publishing House, 1990, 15). Shifting from its parent ministry (which had had its name changed to Internal Affairs) to the ministry of National Defense, and finally back to the Ministry of the Internal Affairs in subordination, they were initially (1959) issued a reserve PAVN cryptosystem ...

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