Ethics, Globalization, and Project Management • 189
the role of government; how it relates to internal constituencies and
external parties; perceptions of ownership of enterprises and prots;
government bureaucracy; and local acceptance of foreign powers.
3. Economic dimension: is pertains to topics like currency valuation,
payments, supply and demand, perceptions about prot making and
sharing, and foreign supplier relationships. Like the political dimen-
sion, this one is oen dynamic, changing constantly.
4. Infrastructure dimension: is deals with technology, science, engi-
neering, and others. is dimension deals with topics like the tech-
nological capacity of a country to support a project, standardization
of tools and processes, information sharing, and technical pro-
ciency and currency.
5. Geographical dimension: is requires considering the international,
regional, and local factors when managing a project. Generally, the
greater the geographical spread between the home for the project
and the one for where the work is, the more dicult it is to manage,
especially if the culture and technology varies from one location and
the other. is dimension deals with topics like distance, time zones,
8.3 INDEPENDENCE, INTEGRATION,
None of the dimensions should be seen as distinct among themselves; they
are all interrelated to one degree or another. A change in one can impact
another. And it can have ethical implications, too. For example, the poli-
tics can deteriorate between two countries, resulting in the two companies
not interacting with each other. Each side can hold back information or
sabotage the work of the others, causing a project to fail.
e relationships among all the aforementioned dimensions can become
quite complex when the following three relationships are considered: indepen-
dence, integration, and interdependence among all the elements of a project.
Independence reects the degree of autonomy that each of the compo-
nents (e.g., stakeholders, processes) has on a project. Interdependence is
the degree of reliance the output of a component has on another com-
ponent. Integration is the degree to which each component interacts
with each other. In the global environment all three play a critical role in