Free Movement of Workers

The free movement of workers is enshrined in Article 45 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and is directly effective on member states,1 both vertically and horizontally.2 As noted in Chapter 1, the EU at its inception was (and still largely is) primarily concerned with economic policy. Its overarching aim of a free market required the free movement of goods and services from one member state to the next. You need to bear in mind that unlike the USA, which is made up of states within one country, the EU is comprised of separate countries each with their own borders and trade tariffs. The EU harmonized trade and competition law throughout the union to make it easier for member states to trade ...

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