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Europe’s Energy Transition

Book Description

Europe’s Energy Transition: Insights for Policy Making looks at the availability and cost of accessing energy and how it significantly affects economic growth and competitiveness in global markets. The results in this book, from a European Commission (EC) financed project by INSIGHT_E, provide an overview of the most recent analyses, focusing on energy markets and their implications for society. Designed to inform European policymaking, elements of this book will be integrated into upcoming EC policies, giving readers invaluable insights into the cost and availability of energy, the effect of price increases affecting vulnerable consumer groups, and current topics of interest to the EC and ongoing energy debate. INSIGHT_E provides decision-makers with unbiased policy advice and insights on the latest developments, including an assessment of their potential impact.

  • Presents answers to strategic questions posed by the European Commission
  • Coherently assesses the energy transition, from policies to energy supply, markets, system requirements, and consumer needs
  • Informed the EC "Clean Energy for All Europeans" package from end of 2016, e.g., regarding aspects of energy poverty
  • Endorsed by thought leaders from within and outside of Europe, including utilities, energy agencies, research institutes, journal editors, think tanks, and the European Commission

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Endorsements
  6. List of Contributors
  7. Editor Biographies
    1. Dr. Manuel Welsch
    2. Steve Pye
    3. Dr. Dogan Keles
    4. Aurélie Faure-Schuyer
    5. Audrey Dobbins
    6. Abhishek Shivakumar
    7. Dr. Paul Deane
    8. Prof. Mark Howells
  8. Foreword to this Book
  9. Foreword on INSIGHT_E
  10. Acknowledgments
  11. Section I: Introduction
    1. Chapter 1. Europe’s Energy Transition
      1. Abstract
      2. Electricity Generation
      3. Heating and Cooling
      4. Transport
    2. Chapter 2. Insights for Policy Making—About this Book
      1. Abstract
      2. 2.1 In Close Dialogue With the European Commission
      3. 2.2 Audience of this Book
      4. 2.3 Outline of this Book
    3. Chapter 3. INSIGHT_E—A Think Tank Informing the European Commission
      1. Abstract
      2. 3.1 The Need for Multidisciplinary Energy Policy Advice
      3. 3.2 Delivering Policy Advice—The Outputs of INSIGHT_E
      4. 3.3 The INSIGHT_E Observatory of the Energy Transition
      5. 3.4 Background on INSIGHT_E
  12. Section II: Europe’s Energy Policy Landscape
    1. Chapter 4. Introduction: Europe as a Consuming Region
      1. Abstract
    2. Chapter 5. The European Union on the Global Scene—A Snapshot
      1. Abstract
      2. 5.1 Primary Energy Sources and Interactions With Global Markets
      3. 5.2 Energy Dependency—A Key Concern
      4. 5.3 Diversified Electricity Generation Compared to Other Regions
      5. 5.4 Final Energy Consumption in the European Union
    3. Chapter 6. European Energy Policy Objectives
      1. Abstract
      2. 6.1 Reforming European Energy Markets and Coordination
      3. 6.2 Energy Policy Goals to 2020 and 2050
      4. 6.3 Conclusion: Europe in Need of Further Reform
      5. References
    4. Chapter 7. A Market-Based European Energy Policy
      1. Abstract
      2. 7.1 Towards an Internal Energy Market
      3. 7.2 Level of Progress in Market Integration
      4. 7.3 The Role of Electricity Capacity Remuneration Schemes in European Energy Policy
      5. 7.4 The EU Emission Trading Scheme—Steering Investments in Low-Carbon Technologies
      6. 7.5 Energy Prices in Europe
      7. References
    5. Chapter 8. Conclusions
      1. Abstract
  13. Section III: Energy Supply: A Changing Environment
    1. Chapter 9. Introduction
      1. Abstract
    2. Chapter 10. Decarbonizing the EU Energy System
      1. Abstract
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Carbon Budget and Unburnable Carbon
      4. 10.3 Unburnable Fossil Fuel Reserves
      5. 10.4 Implications for EU Member States
      6. 10.5 Implications for European Energy Industries and Financial Markets
      7. 10.6 Is Carbon Pricing Contributing to Staying Within our Carbon Budget?
      8. 10.7 What Could Carbon Pricing Achieve in the Future?
      9. 10.8 What Have Other Policy Instruments Achieved?
      10. 10.9 What Could Other Policy Instruments Achieve in the Future?
      11. 10.10 The Need for a Broad Policy Mix
      12. References
    3. Chapter 11. Gas Security of Supply in the European Union
      1. Abstract
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 The EU’s Gas Infrastructure
      4. 11.3 The External Dimension of the EU’s Approach
      5. 11.4 Shale Gas Prospects for Europe
      6. 11.5 Costs, Resources, and Technologies Required for the Exploitation of Shale Gas
      7. 11.6 Assessment of the Environmental Risks of Shale Gas Extraction and Transportation
      8. 11.7 Ensuring Europe’s Security of Gas Supply in the Future
      9. References
    4. Chapter 12. Biofuels for Aviation: Policy Goals and Costs
      1. Abstract
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 European Policy Context
      4. 12.3 Ambition to 2050
      5. 12.4 Long-Term Passenger Forecasts
      6. 12.5 Technical Improvements
      7. 12.6 Air Traffic Management
      8. 12.7 Cost of Biojet Fuels
      9. 12.8 Feedstocks
      10. 12.9 Scenario Analysis
      11. 12.10 Conclusion
      12. References
    5. Chapter 13. Conclusions and Outlook
      1. Abstract
  14. Section IV: Impact of Renewable Energies on Market Operation and Design
    1. Chapter 14. Introduction
      1. Abstract
      2. References
    2. Chapter 15. Curtailment: An Option for Cost-Efficient Integration of Variable Renewable Generation?
      1. Abstract
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Status Quo in Selected Member States
      4. 15.3 Future Prospects
      5. References
    3. Chapter 16. Impact on Electricity Markets: Merit Order Effect of Renewable Energies
      1. Abstract
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Review of Ex Post Analyses of the Merit Order Effect
      4. 16.3 Ex Ante Analysis of Merit Order Effect—Methodology
      5. 16.4 Comments and Discussions
      6. References
    4. Chapter 17. Market Design Options for Promoting Low-Carbon Technologies
      1. Abstract
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Is There a “Missing-Money-Problem” for Low-Carbon Technologies?
      4. 17.3 Possible Market Designs
      5. 17.4 Assessment of the Market Designs Presented
      6. 17.5 Final Remarks
      7. References
    5. Chapter 18. Case Study: Design Options for the German Electricity Market
      1. Abstract
      2. 18.1 Introduction
      3. 18.2 Modeling Design Options for the German Electricity Market
      4. 18.3 Main Results of the Market Design Analysis
      5. 18.4 Policy Recommendations
      6. References
    6. Chapter 19. Conclusions and Outlook
      1. Abstract
  15. Section V: Reliable and Flexible Energy Systems
    1. Chapter 20. Introduction
      1. Abstract
      2. References
    2. Chapter 21. Need for Flexibility and Potential Solutions
      1. Abstract
      2. 21.1 Traditional Energy System Requirements: A Focus on Times Before Market Liberalization
      3. 21.2 Increasing Penetration of Variable Renewables in the EU
      4. 21.3 Technology Options to Provide Flexibility
      5. 21.4 Case Studies
      6. 21.5 Future Need for Flexibility
      7. 21.6 Concluding Thoughts
      8. References
    3. Chapter 22. Storage Solutions and Their Value
      1. Abstract
      2. 22.1 Generation
      3. 22.2 Storage Solutions
      4. 22.3 Pumped Hydro Storage
      5. 22.4 Other Storage Technologies
      6. 22.5 Value of Storage
      7. 22.6 Facilitating Storage Deployment
      8. 22.7 Main Challenges Ahead
      9. References
    4. Chapter 23. The Role of Fuel Cells and Hydrogen in Stationary Applications
      1. Abstract
      2. 23.1 FCH Technologies and Pathways
      3. 23.2 Merit Assessment of Stationary FCH Technologies and Pathways
      4. 23.3 Energy System Perspective
      5. 23.4 Conclusions and Policy Recommendations
      6. References
    5. Chapter 24. Need for Reliability and Measuring Its Cost
      1. Abstract
      2. 24.1 Characterizing Interruptions
      3. 24.2 Composition of Costs
      4. 24.3 Quantifying Costs
      5. 24.4 Isolated and Vulnerable: Case Study of Cyprus (2011)
      6. 24.5 Timing Matters: Case Study of Italy (2003)
      7. 24.6 Integrating Renewables Through Smarter Grids: Tradeoffs and Synergies
      8. 24.7 Services, not kWh: Expanding the Approach
      9. References
    6. Chapter 25. Conclusions
      1. Abstract
  16. Section VI: Society and Consumer Demands
    1. Chapter 26. Introduction
      1. Abstract
    2. Chapter 27. Self-Consumption of Electricity from Renewable Sources
      1. Abstract
      2. 27.1 Introduction
      3. 27.2 Benefits
      4. 27.3 Challenges of Self-Consumption and Policy Options
      5. 27.4 Sharing Grid Costs, Levies, and Taxes
      6. 27.5 Conclusions
      7. References
    3. Chapter 28. DC Power Production and Consumption in Households
      1. Abstract
      2. 28.1 Introduction
      3. 28.2 DC Networks
      4. 28.3 Policy Recommendations
      5. References
    4. Chapter 29. District Heating in Europe: Opportunities for Energy Savings, Business, and Jobs
      1. Abstract
      2. 29.1 Introduction
      3. 29.2 Current Situation
      4. 29.3 Demand Side
      5. 29.4 District Heating Networks
      6. 29.5 Supply Side
      7. 29.6 Business Models and Jobs
      8. 29.7 Policy Recommendations and Outlook
      9. References
    5. Chapter 30. Energy Poverty Across the EU: Analysis of Policies and Measures
      1. Abstract
      2. 30.1 Introduction
      3. 30.2 Energy Poverty in Europe: Understanding of the Problem and Policy Response
      4. 30.3 Assessing Member State Responses: Defining the Issues
      5. 30.4 Assessing Member State Responses: Policies and Measures
      6. 30.5 Developing a Comprehensive and Coordinated European Response
      7. 30.6 Conclusions
      8. References
    6. Chapter 31. Conclusions
      1. Abstract
    7. Society and Consumer Demands—Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Initialisms
  17. Section VII: Europe’s Energy Transition: Challenges and Insights for Policy Making
    1. Chapter 32. Introduction
      1. Reference
    2. Chapter 33. Key Challenges Ahead
      1. Abstract
      2. 33.1 System Decarbonization
      3. 33.2 Secure, Reliable, and Competitive Energy Markets
      4. 33.3 Affordability for Consumers
      5. References
    3. Chapter 34. Developing the Policy Package
      1. Abstract
      2. 34.1 Emission Reduction Targets and the EU ETS
      3. 34.2 Delivering a Higher Market Share of Renewable Energy
      4. 34.3 Addressing Energy Poverty and Protecting Vulnerable Consumers
      5. References
    4. Chapter 35. Research Priorities
      1. Abstract
      2. References
  18. Index