Notes

INTRODUCTION

1. The argument we make is known as cluster theory in the arts, which defines works of art as having a set of attributes. The set we provide is unique, but we have used different sources for guidance, taking various lists of criteria and compiling them into one that we believe satisfies conditions for art and leadership. These lists appear in R. L. Anderson, Calliope’s Sisters: A Comparative Study of Philosophies of Art, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990; E.J. Bond, “The Essential Nature of Art,” American Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 12, 1975, pp. 177–183; D. Dutton, “A Naturalist Definition of Art,” The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, vol. 64, 2006, pp. 367–377; and B. Gaut, “The Cluster Account of Art ...

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