Chalmers  gives a lucid introduction to the major developments in the philosophy of natural science during the twentieth century. It is recommended as a first book on the topic and the interested reader will be guided to some influential books through it. It does not allow much space for observation and experimentation. For those interested in these topics, the second half of Hacking's book  provides a coherent treatment of experimental science, including a large number of nice examples.
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3. Chalmers, A.F. (1982) What Is This Thing Called Science? 2nd edn, Hackett Publishing, Indianapolis.
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8. Hacking, I. (1983) Representing and Intervening, Cambridge University Press, New York.
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10. Priestley, J. (1775) ...