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Express Learning - Computer Fundamentals and Programming by ITL ESL, Ashok Kamthane

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Basics and
Introduction to C
1. Why are computers used? Brief their benefits.
Ans: Computers play a vital role in the socioeconomic progress of a country. Every nation is paying
great importance to computer literacy. Progress of individuals, surrounding region, nation and the world
is ensured only with the introduction and use of computers. In every occupation, computers are being
used increasingly. In every part of the world, computers are inducted to increase the overall productivity.
Moreover, the quality of the products due to the application of computers is substantially improved.
The impact of computers is very high on mass education, entertainment and productivity in all fields.
The use of computers reduces drastically the cost of production, saves a lot of time and ensures the best
quality.
In addition, the use of computer with some know-how (for the common users) and a lot of technical
innovations (by the developers), numerical problems, business transactions and scientific applications
can be computed in almost no time. A computer does various tasks based on the programs installed
in it. Intellectual computer is certainly a powerful gadget, but human intellectual capability is much
higher than that of a computer. Thus, computer does not have its own brain. Brainpower of computer
is limited. Thus, human intellectual power is further reinforced by the use of computers frequently in
the day-to-day life. By learning computer-programming languages, developing software packages and
understanding and developing hardware of computers, one can make life and the nation economically
prosperous.
2. Illustrate the functions of various parts of a computer.
Ans: Computer is a programmable electronic machine that accepts instructions and data through
input devices, manipulating data according to instructions and providing finally result to the output
device. The result can be stored in memory or sent to the output device. Figure 1.1 shows the block
diagram of a conventional computer.
1
M01_ITL-ESL4791_02_SE_C01.indd 3 12/22/2012 4:59:18 PM
II-4 Programming Concepts
Central
Processing
Unit
Input Output
Memory
Figure 1.1 Block Diagram of a Conventional Computer
Figure 1.2 shows a computer system containing a monitor, a keyboard and a rectangular box
comprising Central Processing Unit on the motherboard.
Figure 1.2 Computer System
A computer consists of the following main parts:
Input devices: They are used to accept the data and instructions into the computer. The various input
devices that can be used in a computer are keyboard, mouse, analog-to-digital converters, light pen,
track ball, optical character reader, scanner, etc.
Output devices: They are used to display the results on the screen or send the data to an output
device. The processed data is ultimately sent to the output device by the computer. The various out-
put devices that can be used in a computer are monitor, printer, LED, seven-segment display, D to A
converter, plotter, etc.
Memory:Memory is used to store the program. The memory is categorized into the following types:
1. primary memory and
2. secondary memory.
Primary memory: It is made from semiconductors. Further, there are two types of semiconductor
memories. They are:
1. RAM (random access memory) and
2. ROM (read-only memory).
Semiconductor memory is used for storing the instructions and data in the form of ones and zeros.
It can be called user’s memory or read–write memory. The processor first reads the instructions and data
from the primary memory (semiconductor memory). Then, it executes the instructions.
One more memory device used by a computer is called read-only memory (ROM). This contains
a fixed software program for providing certain operations. This is non-volatile memory. Its contents
cannot be eliminated when power supply goes off. The basic input–output system (BIOS) is a software
M01_ITL-ESL4791_02_SE_C01.indd 4 12/22/2012 4:59:19 PM

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