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Express Learning - Computer Fundamentals and Programming by ITL ESL, Ashok Kamthane

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Index
A
Abacus, I-4–I-5
actual argument, II-219
algorithm, I-66, II-6
difference with a program, I-71
types of, II-6
American National Standards Institute (ANSI), II-5
analog computer, I-9
analytical engine, I-5
AND operation, II-43
ANSI C, II-5
ANSI. See American National Standards
Institute (ANSI)
append mode, II-299
application software, I-60–I-61
arithmetic logic unit (ALU), I-13, I-16
arithmetic operator, II-41
order of precedence of, II-43–II-44
arithmetic unit (AU), I-17
array, II-130–II-139
characteristics of, II-132–II-133
elements, II-130
insertion and deletion of an element in,
II-135–II-136
operations done on, II-135
array of pointer, II-192
artificial intelligence, I-7–I-8
ASCII, I-41
codes of, II-44
assembler, I-73
assembly language, I-65, II-5
advantages of, I-65
asset() macro, II-259
assignment operator, II-41, II-43,
II-44–II-45
associativity, II-15
atof(), II-163
auto variables, II-236
additional uniqueness of, II-237
auxiliary memory, I-19
B
batch processing OS, I-47
BCD, I-40, I-42
binary coded decimal (BCD), I-40
binary coding system, I-40
binary number system, I-38
bit, I-23
bitwise operator, II-41
Z01_ITL-ESL4791_01_SE_IND.indd 1 12/22/2012 4:55:37 PM
S-2 Index
break, 11-17, II-83
difference with break statement, II-85
difference with continue
statement, II-85
bridge, I-112
browser, I-115
buffer, I-49
bus topology, I-105–1-106
byte, I-23
C
C
advantages of, II-8
advantages of using pointers in, II-187
decision-making statements supported by,
II-78, II-79–II-80
execution of DOS command, II-71
input and output in, II-68–II-74
keywords, II-14–11-15
middle-level language, II-5–II-6
operators supported by, II-40–II-41
representation of octal and hexadecimal
numbers in, II-14
role of curly braces in, II-8
rules for writing a program in, II-7
sections of program in, II-7–II-8
storage class supported by, II-236
structure in, II-269
types of constants in, II-14
union in, II-275
C Declarations, II-13–II-19
data types in, II-13
cache, I-19–I-20
cathode ray tube (CRT), I-34
CD, I-27–I-28
CD-R, I-28
CD-ROM, I-28
CD-RW, I-28
cell range, I-97
naming convention for, I-97
central processor unit, I-13, I-16, II-5
cgets(), II-70
channels, I-119
character array, II-136
character I/O, II-69
character-oriented functions, II-70
CLI, I-49
closegraph(), II-314
coding, I-63
comma operators, II-41
command line arguments, II-300
command line interface (CLI), I-49
compact disk (CD), I-27–I-28
compilation, II-6
compiler, I-72, II-6
complement, I-39
compound assignment operators, II-45
computer
characteristics of, I-3–I-4
classification according to functionality,
I-9–I-10
classification according to purpose, I-8
classification according to type of data
handling techniques, I-8–I-9
evolution of, I-4–I-6
functions of various parts of, II-3–II-5
generations of, I-6–I-8
limitations of, I-16
memory, I-18–I-19
reasons for use, II-3
computer network, I-104–I-105
hardware devices used in, I-111
computer program, I-63–I-64
difference with an algorithm, I-71
conditional compilation, II-256–II-257
conditional operators, II-41
conio.h, II-8
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Index S-3
constant, II-13
constant pointer, II-191–II-192
continue, II-85
difference with break statement, II-85
control unit (CU), I-13
counter-controlled loops, II-102
format of, II-102
D
data and time functions, I-101
database management system, I-61
deadlock, I-48–I-49
decision statements, II-78–II-89
delimiters, II-17
desktop computer, I-11
desktop publishing software, I-61
digital computers, I-9
digital versatile disk (DVD), I-28
DIR, I-50–I-51
direct algorithm, II-6
DISKCOPY, I-51
division operator, II-44
DOS, I-50–I-52
dot operator, II-270–II-271
do-while loop, II-108
download, I-115–I-116
DRAM chip, I-22
dynamic initialization, II-19
program for, II-19
dynamic memory allocation, II-197
functions used for, II-197
dynamic RAM (DRAM), I-22
E
EBCDIC, I-41
electrically erasable programmable ROM
(EEPROM), I-23
electronic mail, I-119, I-120–I-121
e-mail. See electronic mail
embedded OS, I-48
end of file, II-298
end of string, II-298
enumerated data types, II-275
environmental variables, II-300
erasable programmable ROM (EPROM),
I-22–I-23
escape sequence, II-69
functions of, II-69
uses of, II-69
exit() function, II-71, II-86
difference with break statement, II-86
extended binary coded decimal interchange code
(EBCDIC), I-41
external variables, II-238–II-239
F
fifth generation computers, I-7–I-8
File Transfer Protocol (FTP), I-119
first generation computers, I-6
flash ROM, I-23
float numbers, II-18
floppy disk, I-27
flowchart, I-66–I-67
advantages and disadvantages of, I-66–I-67
guidelines for preparation of, I-68–I-69
symbols used in, I-67–I-68
footers, I-90
steps to insert in a document, I-90–I-92
for loop, II-104–II-107
formal argument, II-219
Format Painter, I-90
FORMAT, I-51
fourth generation computers, I-7
fprintf, II-299
free(), II-196–II-197
Z01_ITL-ESL4791_01_SE_IND.indd 3 12/22/2012 4:55:37 PM
S-4 Index
fseek(), II-298
syntax of, II-298
FTP. See File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
function prototype, II-221
functions, II-217–II-223
invoking of, II-217
library functions, II-217
syntax of, II-218
G
game controller, I-31
gateway, I-113
general purpose computers, I-8
getch(), II-70
getchar(), II-70
getche(), II-70
gets(), II-70
gigabyte, I-23
global pointer, II-221
goto, II-17, II-83, II-84
graphical user interface (GUI), I-49
graphics, II-313
gray code, I-42
H
hand-held computer, I-11
hard copy, I-32
hard disk, I-27
hardware, I-58–I-59
#include directive, II-253
#pragma DIRECTIVE, II-257–II-258
headers, I-90
steps to insert in a document, I-90–I-92
hexadecimal number system, I-38
high level languages (HLLs), I-66
HLLs. See high level languages (HLLs)
Hollerith’s tabulator, I-6
home page, I-114
HTTP. See hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)
hub, I-112
hybrid computers, I-9
hypertext, I-115
hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), I-120
I
identifiers, II-15
if statement, II-78–II-71
syntax of, II-78
use in C, II_78
working of, II-78–II-79
if-else statement, II-80
flowchart for, II-80
syntax of, II-80
working of, II-80
image editor, I-61
impact printer, I-32
include directive, II-253–II-253
indirect algorithm, II-6
indirection operator, II-188
information processing cycle, I-15–I-16
input device, I-29
input unit, I-14
input-output device, I-30
int86(), II-276
intdos(), II-276
integer array, II-136
integrated circuits, I-7
interfaces, I-23–I-24
internal processor memory, I-18
International Standards Organization (ISO), I-117
Internet, I-113–I-114
advantages of, I-116
application/services, I-118–I-119
connection process, I-117–I-118
history of, I-113–I-114
Z01_ITL-ESL4791_01_SE_IND.indd 4 12/22/2012 4:55:37 PM

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