As easy as it is to program Automation, not all applications can be driven by using Automation. Most applications that run in Windows and use Automation at least use Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE). What DDE provides for developers is exactly what the name implies—the capability to exchange data dynamically from one application to another. DDE is an ancestor of Automation. In fact, the first version of Automation was built over a layer of DDE. DDE has been around since Windows 1.0 and continues to be a standard that most applications follow to communicate with other applications under Windows.

Like Automation, a DDE session (called a conversation) is made up of a client (also known as the controller), such as Access, ...

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