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Fast Circuit Boards

Book Description

An essential guide to modern circuit board design based on simple physics and practical applications 

The fundamentals taught in circuit theory were never intended to work above a few megahertz, let alone at a gigahertz. While electronics is grounded in physics, most engineers’ education in this area is too general and mathematical to be easily applied to the problem of high speed circuits. Left to their own devices, many engineers produce layouts that require expensive revisions in order to finally meet specifications.

Fast Circuit Boards fills the gap in knowledge by providing clear, down-to-earth guidance on designing digital circuit boards that function at high clock rates. By making the direct connection between physics and fast circuits, this book instills the fundamental universal principles of information transfer to give engineers a solid basis for hardware design. Using simple tools, simple physics, and simple language, this invaluable resource walks through basic electrostatics, magnetics, wave mechanics, and more to bring the right technology down to the working level.

Designed to be directly relevant and immediately useful to circuit board designers, this book:

  • Properly explains the problems of fast logic and the appropriate tools
  • Applies basic principles of physics to the art of laying out circuit boards
  • Simplifies essential concepts scaled up to the gigahertz level, saving time, money, and the need for revisions
  • Goes beyond circuit theory to provide a deep, intuitive understanding of the mechanisms at work
  • Demonstrates energy management’s role in board design through step function-focused transmission line techniques

Engineers and technicians seeking a more systematic approach to board design and a deeper understanding of the fundamental principles at work will find tremendous value in this highly practical, long-awaited text.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Preface
  4. 1 Electric and Magnetic Fields
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Electrons and the Force Field
    3. 1.3 The Electric Field and Voltage
    4. 1.4 Electric Field Patterns and Charge Distributions
    5. 1.5 Field Energy
    6. 1.6 Dielectrics
    7. 1.7 Capacitance
    8. 1.8 Capacitors
    9. 1.9 The D or Displacement Field
    10. 1.10 Mutual and Self Capacitance
    11. 1.11 Current Flow in a Capacitance
    12. 1.12 The Magnetic Field
    13. 1.13 The B Field of Induction
    14. 1.14 Inductance
    15. 1.15 Inductors
    16. 1.16 The Inductance of a Solenoid in Air
    17. 1.17 Magnetic Field Energy Stored in Space
    18. 1.18 Mutual Inductance
    19. 1.19 Transformer Action
    20. 1.20 Poynting’s Vector
    21. 1.21 Resistors and Resistance
    22. Problem Set
    23. Glossary
    24. Answers to Problems
  5. 2 Transmission Lines—Part 1
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 The Ideal World
    3. 2.3 Transmission Line Representations
    4. 2.4 Characteristic Impedance
    5. 2.5 Waves and Wave Velocity
    6. 2.6 The Balance of Field Energies
    7. 2.7 A Few Comments on Transmission Lines
    8. 2.8 The Propagation of a Wave on a Transmission Line
    9. 2.9 Initial Wave Action
    10. 2.10 Reflections and Transmissions at Impedance Transitions
    11. 2.11 The Unterminated (Open) Transmission Line
    12. 2.12 The Short‐Circuited Transmission Line
    13. 2.13 Voltage Doubling and Rise Time
    14. 2.14 Matched Shunt Terminated Transmission Lines
    15. 2.15 Matched Series Terminated Transmission Lines
    16. 2.16 Extending a Transmission Line
    17. 2.17 Skin Effect
    18. Problem Set
    19. Glossary
    20. Answers to Problems
  6. 3 Transmission Lines—Part 2
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Energy Sources
    3. 3.3 The Ground Plane/Power Plane as an Energy Source
    4. 3.4 What Is a Capacitor?
    5. 3.5 Turning Corners
    6. 3.6 Practical Transmissions
    7. 3.7 Radiation and Transmission Lines
    8. 3.8 Multilayer Circuit Boards
    9. 3.9 Vias
    10. 3.10 Layer Crossings
    11. 3.11 Vias and Stripline
    12. 3.12 Stripline and the Power Plane
    13. 3.13 Stubs
    14. 3.14 Traces and Ground (Power) Plane Breaks
    15. 3.15 Characteristic Impedance of Traces
    16. 3.16 Microstrip
    17. 3.17 Centered Stripline
    18. 3.18 Asymmetric Stripline
    19. 3.19 Two‐Layer Boards
    20. 3.20 Sine Waves on Transmission Lines
    21. 3.21 Shielded Cables
    22. 3.22 Coax
    23. 3.23 Transfer Impedance
    24. 3.24 Waveguides
    25. 3.25 Balanced Lines
    26. 3.26 Circuit Board Materials
    27. Problem Set
    28. Glossary
    29. Answers to Problems
  7. 4 Interference
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Radiation—General Comments
    3. 4.3 The Impedance of Space
    4. 4.4 Field Coupling to Open Parallel Conductors (Sine Waves)
    5. 4.5 Cross‐Coupling
    6. 4.6 Shielding—General Comments
    7. 4.7 Even‐Mode Rejection
    8. 4.8 Ground—A General Discussion
    9. 4.9 Grounds on Circuit Boards
    10. 4.10 Equipment Ground
    11. 4.11 Guard Shields
    12. 4.12 Forward Referencing Amplifiers
    13. 4.13 A/D Converters
    14. 4.14 Utility Transformers and Interference
    15. 4.15 Shielding of Distribution Power Transformers
    16. 4.16 Electrostatic Discharge
    17. 4.17 Aliasing Errors
    18. Glossary
  8. 5 Radiation
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Standing Wave Ratio
    3. 5.3 The Transmission Coefficient τ
    4. 5.4 The Smith Chart
    5. 5.5 Smith Chart and Wave Impedances (Sine Waves)
    6. 5.6 Stubs and Impedance Matching
    7. 5.7 Radiation—General Comments
    8. 5.8 Radiation from Dipoles
    9. 5.9 Radiation from Loops
    10. 5.10 Effective Radiated Power for Sinusoids
    11. 5.11 Apertures
    12. 5.12 Honeycomb Filters
    13. 5.13 Shielded Enclosures
    14. 5.14 Screened Rooms
    15. 5.15 Line Filters
    16. Glossary
  9. Appendix A: Sine Waves in Circuits
    1. A.1 Introduction
    2. A.2 Unit Circle and Sine Waves
    3. A.3 Angles, Frequency, and rms
    4. A.4 The Reactance of an Inductor
    5. A.5 The Reactance of a Capacitor
    6. A.6 An Inductor and a Resistor in Series
    7. A.7 A Capacitor and a Resistor in Series
    8. A.8 The Arithmetic of Complex Numbers
    9. A.9 Resistance, Conductance, Susceptance, Reactance, Admittance, and Impedance
    10. A.10 Resonance
    11. A.11 Answers to Problems
  10. Appendix B: Square‐Wave Frequency Spectrum
    1. B.1 Introduction
    2. B.2 Ideal Square Waves
    3. B.3 Square Waves with a Rise Time
  11. Appendix C: The Decibel
  12. Appendix D: Abbreviations and Acronyms
  13. Index
  14. End User License Agreement