308
LSDB Resynchronization (LR) bits, 82
LSDBs (link-state databases), 68
OSPF, 70–71
purging LSAs, 77
resynchronization, 81
LSP_TUNNEL objects (RSVP-TE), 231
LSPs (label-switched paths), 8, 106, 166
adjacency flaps, 107
BFD, 291
congestion indication, 112–113
CSNPs, 111
database synchronization, 111, 114
explicity routed/traffic engineered, 47
flags, 112
flooding, 112
fragmenting, 112
generation/flooding, 120–121
hop-by-hop routed, 47, 188
IS-IS, 109–112
LDP, 187, 197–198
MPLS, 61, 197–198
MPLS-TE, 226
nesting, 46
tunnels, 231
zeroth LSPs, 112
LSRefreshTime timer, 90
LSRs (label-switching routers), 45, 163
address lookup, 164
ATM, 48
cell mode, 48
DOD mode (LDP), 214–219
edge LSRs, 46, 164–165
frame mode, 48
label-distribution protocols, 46
LFIBs, 50
penultimate LSP LSR, 46
MPLS domains, 46
NSF, 58
recovery periods, 58
RSVP-TE
nonrestarting LSRs, 244–245
restarting LSRs, 241–244
transit LSRs, 46, 164
M
M (More) bits, 82
M/S (Master/Slave) bits, 82
make-before-break approach (MPLS-TE), 262
Master/Slave (MS) bits, 82
Maximum Recovery Time (LDP), 206
mean time between failures (MTBF), 6
mean time to repair (MTTR), 6
mesh connectivity, 8
MESSAGE_ACK objects (RSVP-TE), 235
messages
BGP, 141–142
LDP, 191–192
MFI (MPLS Forwarding Infrastructure), 50
midpoint restarts (RSVP-TE), 243
modularity, 15, 17
More (M) bits, 82
MP_REACH_NLRI attributes, 169
MP_UNREACH_NLRI attributes, 169
MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching), 7, 43–50
applications, 55
BGP, 168–169
control-plane components, 163–164
FECs, 164
forwarding planes
components, 163–164
NSF, 43
forwarding state, 166
entries, 166
LSPs, 197
IP (versus), 163–164
label lookup, 50, 53
labels, 45
LDP, 187, 198
networks. See MPLS networks
SONET/SDH (versus), 17
MPLS Forwarding Infrastructure (MFI), 50
MPLS Forwarding State Holding Timer, 205
MPLS networks, 46
applications, 50
ATM, 48
backbone, 7
components, 7, 9
control planes, 59, 61
distributed forwarding, 56
domains, 46
LSDB Resynchronization (LR) bits

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