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# Chapter 1Electromagnetics and Optics

## 1.1 Introduction

In this chapter, we will review the basics of electromagnetics and optics. We will briefly discuss various laws of electromagnetics leading to Maxwell's equations. Maxwell's equations will be used to derive the wave equation, which forms the basis for the study of optical fibers in Chapter 2. We will study elementary concepts in optics such as reflection, refraction, and group velocity. The results derived in this chapter will be used throughout the book.

## 1.2 Coulomb's Law and Electric Field Intensity

In 1783, Coulomb showed experimentally that the force between two charges separated in free space or vacuum is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The force is repulsive if the charges are alike in sign, and attractive if they are of opposite sign, and it acts along the straight line connecting the charges. Suppose the charge is at the origin and is at a distance as shown in Fig. 1.1. According to Coulomb's law, the force on the charge is ...

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