FIT SIGMA Tools
The selection and application of appropriate tools is a critical success factor of a FIT SIGMA programme. There are many tools and techniques available in the Six Sigma world (Basu, 2009), some of which are more advanced – such as design of experiments (DOE), quality function deployment (QFD), failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and statistical process control (SPC). In this chapter, we do not introduce any ‘new’ ‘FIT Σ tools’, however, those discussed do constitute the more frequently and appropriately used Six Sigma and Lean tools. Thomas Edison once said, ‘Your idea has to be original only in its adaptation to the problem you are currently working on’. The adaptation of the existing tools represents ‘appropriate FIT SIGMA tools’. These tools are described here as they are used more predominantly under the five steps of the DMAIC cycle.
4.2 TOOLS FOR ‘DEFINE’
The tools for Define as described in this section are:
- value stream mapping;
- SIPOC diagram;
- flow diagram;
- CTQ tree;
- project charter.
4.2.1 D1: Value Stream Mapping
Value stream mapping (VSM) is a visual illustration of all activities required to bring a product through the main flow, from raw material to the stage of reaching the customer.
Mapping out the activities in a production process with cycle times, down times, in-process inventory and information flow paths helps us to visualise the current state of the process and guides us to the future improved state. ...