## Appendix A. Useful Mathematical Relationships

HERE, we present several commonly used mathematical formulas, the majority of which will be needed in this text. Although the reader should already have encountered these relationships in first- and second-year college mathematics courses, we believe that it is helpful to summarize them in one location.

### Geometrical Shapes

In Table A.1, *r* is the radius of an object, *D* is its diameter, and *L* is the length of the cylinder.

Table A.1

Additionally, the area of a triangle of base *B* and altitude *H* is *A* = *BH/*2; and the area of a rectangle of breadth *B* and width *W* is *A* = *BW* .

### Derivatives

### Integrals

In the following, ...