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Fluoroplastics, Volume 1, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Fluoroplastics, Volume 1, compiles in one place a working knowledge of the polymer chemistry and physics of non-melt processible fluoropolymers with detailed descriptions of commercial processing methods, material properties, fabrication and handling information, technologies, and applications. Also, history, market statistics, and safety and recycling aspects are covered. Both volumes contain a large amount of specific property data which is useful for users to readily compare different materials and align material structure with end use applications. Volume 1 concentrates mostly on polytetrafluoroethylene and polychlorotrifluoroethylene and their processing techniques – which are essentially non-melt-processes – used across a broad range of industries including automotive, aerospace, electronic, food, beverage, oil/gas, and medical devices. Since the first edition was published many new technical developments and market changes have taken place and new grades of materials have entered the market. This new edition is a thoroughly updated and significantly expanded revision covering new technologies and applications, and addressing the changes that have taken place in the fluoropolymer markets. Fluoroplastics, Volume 1 is an all-encompassing handbook for non-melt processible fluoropolymers – a unique and invaluable reference for professionals in the fluoropolymer industry and fluoropolymer application industries.

  • Exceptionally broad and comprehensive coverage of non-melt processible fluoropolymers processing and applications.
  • Practical approach, written by long-standing authority in the fluoropolymers industry.
  • New technologies, materials and applications are included in the new edition.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Dedication
  5. Series
  6. Copyrigrht
  7. 2nd edition Acknowledgments
  8. 1st edition Acknowledgments
  9. 2nd edition Preface
  10. 1st edition Preface
  11. Part I
    1. 1. Discovery and History of Fluoropolymers
      1. 1.1. Coming of Age of Polymer Science
      2. 1.2. Roy Plunkett's Story
      3. 1.3. Commercialization of PTFE
      4. 1.4. Developmental History of Fluoropolymers
    2. 2. Production and Market Statistics
      1. 2.1. Growth of Fluoropolymers
      2. 2.2. Regional Consumption of Fluoropolymers
      3. 2.3. Consumption of Fluoropolymers and PTFE
      4. 2.4. Trends
    3. 3. From Fundamentals to Applications
      1. 3.1. Introduction
      2. 3.2. Uniqueness of Fluorine
      3. 3.3. Fluorine Characteristics
      4. 3.4. What are Fluoropolymers?
      5. 3.5. Fundamental Properties of Fluoropolymers
      6. 3.6. Developmental History of Fluoropolymers
      7. 3.7. Examples of Uses of Fluoropolymers
    4. 4. Fluoropolymers: Properties and Structure
      1. 4.1. Introduction
      2. 4.2. Impact of F and C–F Bond on the Properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene
      3. 4.3. Distruping the Linear PTFE Chain: Perfluorinated Ethylene–Propylene Copolymer and Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
      4. 4.4. Reaction Mechanism
      5. 4.5. Effect of Solvents on Fluoropolymers
      6. 4.6. Molecular Interaction of Fluoropolymers: Low Friction and Low Surface Energy
      7. 4.7. Conformations and Transitions of PTFE
      8. 4.8. Conformations and Transitions of PCTFE
    5. 5. Operational Classification of Fluoropolymers
      1. 5.1. Introduction
      2. 5.2. TFE Homopolymers
      3. 5.3. TFE Copolymers
      4. 5.4. CTFE Polymers
      5. 5.5. VDF Polymers
      6. 5.6. VF Polymers
      7. 5.7. Process Classification
    6. 6. Preparation of Tetrafluoroethylene and Other Monomers
      1. 6.1. Introduction
      2. 6.2. TFE Preparation
      3. 6.3. Purification of TFE
      4. 6.4. Properties of TFE
      5. 6.5. Synthesis of HFP
      6. 6.6. Properties of HFP
      7. 6.7. Synthesis of PAVE
      8. 6.8. Properties of PAVE
      9. 6.9. Synthesis of CTFE
      10. 6.10. Properties of CTFE
    7. 7. Polymerization Surfactants
      1. 7.1. Introduction
      2. 7.2. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate
      3. 7.3. Issues with PFOS
      4. 7.4. Problems with PFOA
      5. 7.5. EPA Action
      6. 7.6. Alternative Surfactants for Fluoropolymer Polymerization
      7. 7.7. Summary
    8. 8. Polymerization and Finishing of Tetrafluoroethylene
      1. 8.1. Introduction
      2. 8.2. Polymerization Mechanism
      3. 8.3. TFE Polymers
      4. 8.4. Evolution of Suspension Polymerization of TFE
      5. 8.5. Preparation of PTFE by Emulsion Polymerization
      6. 8.6. Preparation of Dispersion Grade PTFE
      7. 8.7. Preparation of Fine Powder PTFE
      8. 8.8. CTFE Polymers and Polymerization
      9. 8.9. Characterization of PTFE
      10. 8.10. Characterization of PCTFE
    9. 9. Commercial Grades of Fluoropolymers
      1. 9.1. Introduction
      2. 9.2. Granular PTFE
      3. 9.3. PTFE Dispersions
      4. 9.4. Fine Powder PTFE
      5. 9.5. Polychlorotrifluoroethylene Polymers
  12. Part II
    1. 10. Fabrication and Processing of Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene
      1. 10.1. Introduction
      2. 10.2. Resin Selection
      3. 10.3. Compression Molding
      4. 10.4. Automatic Molding
      5. 10.5. Isostatic Molding
      6. 10.6. Ram Extrusion
    2. 11. Fabrication and Processing of Fine Powder Polytetrafluoroethylene
      1. 11.1. Introduction
      2. 11.2. Resin Handling and Storage
      3. 11.3. Paste Extrusion Fundamentals
      4. 11.4. Extrusion Aid or Lubricant
      5. 11.5. Wire Coating
      6. 11.6. Extrusion of Tubing
      7. 11.7. Unsintered Tape
      8. 11.8. Expanded PTFE Manufacturing
      9. 11.9. Fine Powder Resin Selection
    3. 12. Fabrication and Processing of Polytetrafluoroethylene Dispersions
      1. 12.1. Introduction
      2. 12.2. Applications
      3. 12.3. Storage and Handling
      4. 12.4. Surfactants
      5. 12.5. Principles of Coating Technology
      6. 12.6. Dispersion Formulation and Characteristics
      7. 12.7. Glass Cloth Coating
      8. 12.8. Impregnation of Flax and Polyaramide
      9. 12.9. Coating Metal and Hard Surfaces
      10. 12.10. PTFE Yarn Manufacturing
      11. 12.11. Film Casting
      12. 12.12. Anti-drip Applications
      13. 12.13. Filled Bearings
      14. 12.14. Dedusting Powders
      15. 12.15. Other Applications
    4. 13. Processing of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
      1. 13.1. Introduction
      2. 13.2. Processing Considerations
      3. 13.3. Compression Molding
      4. 13.4. Injection Molding
      5. 13.5. Extrusion
      6. 13.6. Machining and Joining
    5. 14. Fluorinated Additives
      1. 14.1. Introduction
      2. 14.2. PTFE Additives
      3. 14.3. Applications of PTFE Additives
      4. 14.4. Feedstock for PTFE Additives
      5. 14.5. Manufacturing PTFE Additives
      6. 14.6. PTFE-Modified Waxes
    6. 15. Surface Treatment of Polytetrafluoroethylene for Adhesion
      1. 15.1. Introduction
      2. 15.2. Sodium Etching of Fluoroplastics
      3. 15.3. Plasma Treatment of Fluoropolymers and PTFE
      4. 15.4. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment
    7. 16. Filled Fluoropolymer Compounds
      1. 16.1. Introduction
      2. 16.2. Granular-Based Compounds
      3. 16.3. Fine Powder-Based Compounds
      4. 16.4. Co-coagulated Compounds
      5. 16.5. Processing Compounds
      6. 16.6. Typical Properties of Filled Fluoropolymers
      7. 16.7. Nanocomposites of PTFE
      8. 16.8. Commercial Products
  13. Part III
    1. 17. Chemical Properties of Fluoropolymers—Polytetrafluoroethylene and Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
      1. 17.1. Introduction
      2. 17.2. Chemical Compatibility of PTFE
      3. 17.3. Chemical Compatibility of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
      4. 17.4. Permeation Fundamentals
      5. 17.5. Environmental Stress Cracking
      6. 17.6. Solubility Parameters
    2. 18. Properties of Tetrafluoroethylene Homopolymers
      1. 18.1. Introduction
      2. 18.2. Crystallinity
      3. 18.3. Molecular Weight
      4. 18.4. Influence of Processing
      5. 18.5. Microstructure and Fracture of PTFE
      6. 18.6. Mechanical Properties
      7. 18.7. Fatigue Properties
      8. 18.8. Electrical Properties
      9. 18.9. Thermal Behavior
      10. 18.10. Flammability Characteristics
      11. 18.11. Irradiation Behavior
      12. 18.12. Surface Properties
      13. 18.13. Refractive Index
      14. 18.14. Standard Measurement Methods
    3. 19. Properties of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
      1. 19.1. Introduction
      2. 19.2. Crystallinity
      3. 19.3. Mechanical Properties
      4. 19.4. Electrical Properties
      5. 19.5. Thermal Properties
      6. 19.6. Irradiation Behavior
      7. 19.7. Properties of PCTFE Films
      8. 19.8. Barrier Properties
      9. 19.9. Spectroscopic Properties
      10. 19.10. Chemical and Weathering Properties
    4. 20. Fabrication Techniques for Polytetrafluoroethylene
      1. 20.1. Introduction
      2. 20.2. Machining
      3. 20.3. Adhesive Bonding Methods
      4. 20.4. Welding and Joining
      5. 20.5. Thermoforming
      6. 20.6. Other Processes
    5. 21. Applications of Polytetrafluoroethylene and Fluoropolymers
      1. 21.1. Chemical Processing
      2. 21.2. Piping
      3. 21.3. Vessels
      4. 21.4. CPI Components
      5. 21.5. Self-Supporting Components
      6. 21.6. Trends in Using Fluoropolymers in Chemical Service
      7. 21.7. Semiconductor Processing
      8. 21.8. Electrical Applications
      9. 21.9. Mechanical Applications
      10. 21.10. Automotive and Aerospace
      11. 21.11. Medical Devices
      12. 21.12. Summary
    6. 22. Safety, Health, Environmental, Disposal, Recycling, and Economics
      1. 22.1. Introduction
      2. 22.2. Toxicology of Fluoropolymers
      3. 22.3. Thermal Properties of PTFE
      4. 22.4. Emission during Processing
      5. 22.5. Safety Measures
      6. 22.6. Food Contact
      7. 22.7. Fluoropolymer Scrap and Recycling
      8. 22.8. Environmental Protection and Disposal Methods
  14. Appendix 1. Chemical Resistance of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
  15. Appendix 2. Chemical Resistance of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE)
  16. Appendix 3. Permeability of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
  17. Appendix 4. Permeability of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE)
  18. Appendix 5. Melt Creep Viscosity of Polytetrafluoroethylene
  19. Glossary
  20. Index