The cases discussed in previous chapters have many common components, apart from the obvious point that they all involve failed polymer products of one type or another. The various product failures were caused by defects which arose in several different ways, including:
• poor manufacture
• poor design
• poor material
• unexpected environment.
But many of the failures arose through a combination of such problems, where one kind of defect such as cold moulding was exacerbated by another, such as design or geometric stress concentrations.
Polymeric materials exhibit a spectrum of physical and chemical properties quite different from conventional materials such as metals, ceramics or ...