Matrices and determinants are very powerful tools in circuit analysis and electromagnetics. Matrices are useful because they enable us to replace an array of many entries as a single symbol and perform operations in a compact symbolic form.

We begin this chapter by defining a matrix, followed by the algebraic operations and properties. We will conclude this chapter by showing practical EMC‐related applications of matrix algebra.

A *matrix* is a mathematical structure consisting of rows and columns of elements (often numbers or functions) enclosed in brackets (Kreyszig, 1999, p. 305).

For example,

(1.1)

The entries in matrix * A* are real numbers. Matrices

We denote matrices by capital boldface letters. It is often convenient, especially when discussing matric operations and properties, to represent a matrix in terms of its general entry in brackets:

(1.3)

Here, **A** is an *m × n* matrix; that ...

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