In this section we will define and learn how to evaluate the line integrals of the form

(4.1)

Before discussing the line integrals, however, let’s review the concept of indefinite and definite integrals.

We will first introduce the indefinite integral and then use it to present the definite integral.

The *indefinite integral* can be easily defined using the concept of a derivative as follows.

Consider a function *f*(*x*). If its integral exists, denoted,

(4.2)

then

(4.3)

Several useful integral formulas are presented next:

(4.4a)

(4.4b)

(4.4c)

(4.4d)

(4.4e)

(4.4f)

(4.4g)

(4.4i)

(4.4j)

If the indefinite ...

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