Chapter 5. Systems Approaches to Instructional Development 81
Instructional Systems Development
approaches to
Bela Banathy, an educator and researcher, devoted his career to studying
educational systems. As he explains in his 1968 work, the terms
concept and systems approach emerged during and after World War II. The
research and development activities for developing complex man-machine
systems at that time revealed that one could not simply add new components
to an existing system such as an aircraft and expect it to function properly. He
explains his views this way:
What emerged from this realization was a new method of planning
and development in which designers learned that they first had to
identify the purpose and performance expectations of the system
before they could develop all the parts that made up the system as a
whole. It is the system as a whole—and not its parts separately—that
must be planned, designed, developed, installed, and managed. What
is really significant is not how the individual components function
separately, but the way they interact and are integrated into the sys-
tem for the purpose of achieving the goal of the system. Generalizing
from this example, systems can be defined as deliberately designed
synthetic organisms, comprised of interrelated and interacting
components which are employed to function in an integrated fashion
to attain predetermined purposes. (p. 2)
Systems approach is then defined as “the application of the systems view, o
systems thinking, to human endeavors” such as instructional development
(p. 13).
In the history of the development of the instructional design field, the decade
of the 1970s is often characterized as “the decade of the systems approach”
(Dick, 1987, p. 189). Andrews and Goodson (1980, 1995) found that as man
as 40 systematic instructional design models with a systems approach to
various degrees were published in the late 1960s and the 1970s (e.g., Briggs,
1970; Kaufman, 1972). Only four of them were published in the 1960s. One
of the models this era produced was the
nterservice Instructional Systems
Development Model, developed by Branson and others in 1976 (Branson an
Grow, 1987). This model consists of five structured phases: analyze, design,
develop, implement, and control. This resembles what is now known as the
ADDIE processes (analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate).
ADDIE with
training needs
This chapter provides an overview of the ADDIE model as the primar
structure of instructional systems development processes. It also explains
the meaning of the term training needs assessment from a historical perspec-
tive to point out the paradigm shift from training focus to performance focus.
82 Foundations of Instructional and Performance Technology
The ADDIE Model
Linear or
ADDIE is the term used to describe a systematic approach to instructional
development. The acronym refers to the five major phases included in
the generic instructional systems development (ISD) process: analysis,
design, development, implementation, and evaluation. The identity of the
individual who came up with the acronym in the first place is unclear, but the
ADDIE-like approach was used by practitioners during the 1970s. The actual
acronym started appearing in literature in the 1980s.
A variety of illustrations have been proposed to represent the ADDIE model.
It can be illustrated as a systematic, linear procedure, as shown in Figure 13
(e.g., Rossett, 1987). In this illustration, each phase is followed step-by-step,
while the data obtained from the analysis phase are fed back to each of the
subsequent steps:
Figure 13. Linear ADDIE steps.
The ADDIE steps can also be illustrated as a linear but cyclical procedure, as
shown in Figure 14 (e.g., Piskurich and Sanders, 1998):
Figure 14. Linear, cyclical ADDIE steps.
Perhaps a more useful illustration of the ADDIE model is to present it as
an interrelated, systemic, non-linear procedure, where each one of the
first four phases is interacting with the “evaluation” phase to validate its
outputs, which will become inputs of the next phase, as shown in Figure 15
(e.g., Molenda, 2003; Rosenberg, 1982; The U.S. Coast Guard, 1984).

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