CHAPTER 1

Preamble: History in a Time of Rapid Change

It was 1963. Few computers existed. Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider, an MIT psychologist and engineer, was appointed director at the U.S. Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). He wrote “Memorandum for Members and Affiliates of the Intergalactic Computer Network.” The ARPANET, predecessor to the internet, soon followed. It was not Licklider’s first sketch of the future. His 1960 article on human-computer “symbiosis” envisioned three stages in the relationship of humans and the mammoth new devices that had far less capability than a graphing calculator does today:

1. Human-computer interaction. Machines are tools, extensions of the arm and eye. Licklider outlined the ...

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