Conclusion

Taking into account the Natural Environment (NE) is nowadays essential to innovate. Innovation that respects the NE has environmental innovation (EI) as its primary target. EI can be achieved through technology or through frugality. In the perspective we have proposed, it can be EI but with a weighted degree of technological sophistication. In fact, there are two possible ways to innovate.

Thus, in a logic of high sophistication, the FabLab is an interesting option: it is a technical-organizational place open to makers and/or hackers allowing permanent interactions, within communities of practice whose members are passionate, combining decentralized expertise and mobilizing ICT and DT. The FabLab, in itself, can appear as a certain way of considering frugality. However, since technological hubris leads to a race to the front in terms of marketing value creation, it invites us to reflect on the satisfactory technological level and on a frugal approach to IE. But frugality is not enough in itself. A specific frugal approach is needed: one that is compatible with the respect of the NE. Hence, we propose the concept of frugal environmental innovation (FEI) in line with a consequentist approach and generating positive private goods (PPG).

From the point of view of innovative creation (of which a conceptual map is presented, see Figure 7.1), what prevails at a high degree of sophistication exists at least as much at a lower degree of sophistication. Thus, bricolage and ...

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