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Fundamentals of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics by Themis Matsoukas

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Chapter 6. Balances in Open Systems

In Chapters 3 (Section 3.4) and 4 we applied the first and second law to closed systems. Most chemical processes involve open systems that exchange mass with the surroundings, usually in the form of flow streams. These streams carry with them not only mass, but also energy and entropy. The application of the first and second law to open systems must, therefore, account for energy and entropy exchanges that take place through flow streams. A flow process may operate under steady-state or unsteady conditions. Under steady state, all properties at any given point are constant and do not vary with time (though they may vary from one point of the process to another). Steady state is the preferred mode of operation ...

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