The ideal solution assumes equal strength of self- and cross-interactions between components. When this is not the case, the solution deviates from ideal behavior. Deviations are simple to detect: upon mixing, nonideal solutions exhibit volume changes (expansion or contraction) and exhibit heat effects that can be measured. Such deviations are quantified via the excess properties. An important new property that we encounter in this chapter is the activity coefficient. It is related to the excess Gibbs free energy and is central to the calculation of the phase diagram.
In this chapter you will learn how to:
1. Obtain excess properties (volume, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy) from experimental data.
2. Calculate activity ...