By all accounts, wireless communication was introduced with the invention of the wireless telegraph in 1896 by Marconi. He was able to transmit encoded alphanumeric characters as telegraphic signals across the Atlantic Ocean. Since then, there has been a rapid growth in wireless communication as can be seen in the development of radio, television, and satellite communications. More recently, the development of different broadband wireless technologies has led to higher data rates than were previously available.
In this chapter, we consider the architecture of modern wireless communication networks; specifically, the cellular wireless communication network. The specific topics to be discussed include the following:
- 1. Introduction to radio communication
- 2. Cellular network architecture
- 3. 2G Networks
- 4. 3G Networks
- 5. 4G Networks
- 6. 5G Networks.
11.2 Radio Communication Basics
The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is the fundamental resource of a wireless communication system. The EM spectrum is divided into several frequency bands that are used for specific applications. The frequency band assigned to an application determines the propagation characteristics of the channel, including the attenuation and other impairments.
The radio spectrum (or radio waves) is a part of the EM spectrum that extends from below the low frequencies used for modern radio communication to gamma radiation at the short wavelength ...