2. Genes and transcripts: insights into regulation at different levels

An insight of the decade

In an editorial in Science entitled “Shining a Light on the Genome’s Dark Matter,” Elizabeth Pennisi (2010) reported that the elucidation of the role of conserved non-protein coding DNA in regulating gene expression constituted an insight of the decade. The dark matter of the genome gives rise to non-protein coding RNA that includes long and short non-protein coding RNAs. Both forms exert their effects partly by modifying epigenetic effects (chromatin modification). Short non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, frequently exert their influence at the level of mRNA translation.

ENCODE Project

The goal of the project designated Encyclopedia of DNA ...

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